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Table 2 Maternal characteristics for mothers responding to the personal interview (October 1, 2009 and March 15, 2010)

From: Maternal characteristics and obstetrical complications impact neonatal outcomes in Indonesia: a prospective study

Maternal characteristics Live birtha
(n = 406)
Stillbirtha (n = 28) Total
(n = 434)
p value
Women’s education (attended) 406 (100) 28 (100) 434 (100)  
 No schooling 6 (1.5) 0 (0) 6 (1.4) 0.548
 Elementary 201 (49.5) 10 (35.7) 211 (48.6)
 Junior high 116 (28.6) 11 (39.3) 127 (29.3)
 Senior high 64 (15.8) 6 (21.4) 70 (16.1)
 Academy/University 19 (4.7) 1 (3.6) 20 (4.6)
Husbands’ education (attended) 392 (100) 27 (100) 419 (100)  
 No schooling 7 (1.8) 0 (0) 7 (1.7) 0.652
 Elementary 182 (46.4) 14 (51.9) 196 (46.8)
 Junior high 97 (24.7) 6 (22.2) 103 (24.6)
 Senior high 84 (21.4) 7 (25.9) 91 (21.7)
 Academy/University 22 (5.6) 0 (0) 22 (5.3)
Woman’s occupation 406 (100) 28 (100) 434 (100)  
 Not employed 276 (68.0) 16 (57.1) 292 (67.3) 0.237
 Employed 130 (32.0) 12 (42.9) 142 (32.7)
SES 406 (100) 28 (100) 434 (100)  
 Quintile 1 (the poorest) 49 (12.1) 3 (10.7) 52 (12) 0.925
 Quintile 2 105 (25.9) 8 (28.6) 113 (26)
 Quintile 3 91 (22.4) 6 (21.4) 97 (22.4)
 Quintile 4 95 (23.4) 5 (17.9) 100 (23)
 Quintile 5 (the richest) 66 (16.3) 6 (21.4) 72 (16.6)
Referral characteristics 406 (100) 28 (100) 434 (100)  
 Referred directly to hospital 255 (62.8) 18 (64.3) 273 (62.9) 0.774
 Multiple referrals before admission 120 (29.6) 7 (25.0) 127 (29.3)
 Self referred 31 (7.6) 3 (10.7) 34 (7.8)
Total time travel estimated to reach nearest hospital (hour) 375 (100) 22 (100) 397 (100)  
 Mean ± SD 0.63 ± 0.54 0.69 ± 0.70 0.6 ± 0.6 0.590
 Range 0.02 – 3.50 0.08 – 3.00 0.02–3.50
Total time estimated (estimated) by category to nearest hospital 375 (100) 22 (100) 397 (100)  
  < 0.5 h 159 (42.4) 10 (45.5) 169 (42.6) 0.450
 0.5- < 1 h 112 (29.9) 5 (22.7) 117 (29.5)
 1- < 1.5 h 66 (17.6) 3 (13.6) 69 (17.4)
 1.5- < 2 h 18 (4.8) 3 (13.6) 21 (5.3)
  > =2 h 20 (5.3) 1 (4.5) 21 (5.3)
Total time since left home until arrived at study hospital (hour) 329 (100) 22 (100) 351 (100)  
 Mean ± SD 12.3 ± 20.2 6.2 ± 10.4 11.9 ± 19.8 0.162
 Range 0.28 – 159.8 0.7 – 48.0 0.28 – 159.8
Total time traveled to reach study hospital 329 (100) 22 (100) 351 (100)  
  < 0.5 h 8 (2.4) 0 (0) 8 (2.3) 0.254
 0.5- < 1 h 13 (4.0) 3 (13.6) 16 (4.6)
 1- < 1.5 h 34 (10.3) 3 (13.6) 37 (10.5)
 1.5- < 2 h 28 (8.5) 2 (9.1) 22 (6.3)
  > =2 h 246 (74.8) 14 (63.6) 268 (76.4)
Type of transportation used to reach study hospital (actual) 367 (100) 26 (100) 393 (100)  
 By foot/ Becak/bicycle 11 (3.0) 0 (0) 11 (2.8) 0.174
 Motorbike/ojek 55 (15.0) 8 (30.8) 63 (16)
 Ambulance 128 (34.9) 5 (19.2) 133 (33.8)
 Public transportation 121 (33.0) 9 (34.6) 130 (33.1)
 Private car (non ambulance) 52 (14.2) 4 (15.4) 56 (14.2)
Distance (km) to reach nearest hospital (estimated) 185 (100) 14 (100) 199 (100)  
 Mean ± SD 12.9 ± 15.7 17.2 ± 19.8 13.2 ± 16 0.334
 Range 0.05–80 0.05–60 0.05–80
Distance to reach nearest hospital (estimated) 185 (100) 14 (100) 199 (100)  
  < 5 km 64 (34.6) 4 (28.6) 68 (34.2) 0.773
 5–9.9 km 59 (31.9) 4 (28.6) 63 (31.7)
 10+ km 62 (33.5) 6 (42.9) 68 (34.2)
Distance (km) traveled to reach study hospital (actual) 131 (100) 10 (100) 141 (100)  
 Mean ± SD 20.0 ± 18.4 32.5 ± 23.3 20.8 ± 19.0 0.056
 Range 1 - 85 11 – 83 1 - 85
Distance to reach study hospital (actual) – categorized 131 (100) 10 (100) 141 (100)  
  < 5 km 34 (26.0) 1 (10.0) 35 (24.8) 0.116
 5–9.9 km 22 (16.8) 0 (0) 22 (15.6)
 10+ km 75 (57.3) 9 (90.0) 84 (59.6)
Reported barrier to referral 406 (100) 28 (100) 434 (100)  
 Personal barrier 26 (6.4) 0 (0) 26 (6) 0.167
 Transportation barrier 54 (13.3) 3 (10.7) 57 (13.1) 0.695
 Geographic barrier 71 (17.5) 10 (35.7) 81 (18.7) 0.017
 Fund barrier 65 (16) 6 (21.4) 71 (16.4) 0.453
 Administrative barrier 38 (9.4) 5 (17.9) 43 (9.9) 0.145
Prenatal Care 406 (100) 28 (100) 434 (100)  
 Yes 395 (97.3) 26 (92.9) 421 (97) 0.183
 Number of visits 4+ 325 (83.8) 17 (63.0) 342 (82.4) 0.006
 Initiated 1st trimester 319 (83.5) 25 (89.3) 344 (83.9) 0.612
 Initiated 2nd trimester 54 (14.1) 3 (10.7) 57 (13.9)
 Initiated 3rd trimester 9 (2.4) 0 (0) 9 (2.2)
  1. aData are mean ± standard deviation or n(%)
  2. Data in italics have precise significance