|First author||Journal||Study type||Data collection year(s)||Country||Region||Rural/urban||Place of birth||Sample size|
|Abhulimhen-Iyoha ||Niger J Clin Pract. 2012||Cross-sectional survey||2009||Nigeria||Benin City||Urban||Community and facility||497 mothers.|
|Adejuyigbe ||Matern Child Nutr. 2008||Mixed-methods, cross-sectional||2003||Nigeria||Ekiti State||Rural||Community and facility||
60 household surveys.|
12 IDIs (healers, TBAs, birth home staff, nurses/midwives).
8 FGDs (total of 42 individuals. Elderly males and females).
4 questionnaires (fathers and grandmothers).
|Alam ||J Perinatol. 2008||Cross-sectional, descriptive||2006||Bangladesh||Sylhet District||Not indicated||Community and facility||
400 household surveys.|
60 semi-structured interviews: 20 recently delivered women, 20 senior females, 10 husbands, 10 senior males.
|Alhaji ||Niger Med J. 2013||Retrospective record review||2009–2010||Nigeria||North-eastern||Not indicated||Community and facility||51 cases of tetanus.|
|Alparslan ||Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2013||Descriptive and cross-sectional||2008||Turkey||Sivas||Urban||Not indicated||263 mothers.|
|Amare ||BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2014||Qualitative||2013||Ethiopia||Oromia, Amhara, Tigray, and SNNPR (Sidama Zone)||Rural||Community and facility||
IDIs with 32 total.|
One community in each region. Each study community:
6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 TBAs, 2 HEWs.
|Ayaz ||PLoS One. 2010||Community-based, cross-sectional||2006||Pakistan||Karachi (squatter settlement)||Urban||Community and facility||565 women between 28 to 33 days post-delivery.|
|Byaruhanga ||Midwifery. 2011||Qualitative||2008||Uganda||Kayunga, Soroti, and Ntugamo Districts||Rural||Community||
6 IDIs with TBAs.|
9 FGDs with 10 to 15 participants each (mothers, older females, and husbands).
|Callaghan-Koru ||BMC Pediatr. 2013||Cross-sectional household survey of newborn care practices||2012||Ethiopia||Tigray, Oromiya, Amhara, and SNNPR||Not indicated||Community and facility||218 mothers.|
|Darmstadt ||Trop Med Int Health. 2007||Qualitative||2000||Egypt||Governorates of Aswan, Luxor, and Fayoum||Rural||Not indicated||217 households interviewed within 7 days of birth.|
|Degefie ||BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2014||Qualitative||2012||Ethiopia||Sidama Zone of SNNP and East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia||Rural||Community and facility||
8 KIIs with grandmothers.|
27 IDIs with mothers.
7 IDIs with TBAs.
15 IDIs with fathers.
|Dhingra ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014||Qualitative||Not stated||Tanzania||Pemba Island||Urban and rural||Community and facility||11 FGDs and 80 IDIs with mothers, grandmothers, untrained and trained TBAs.|
|Falle ||J Health Popul Nutr. 2009||Qualitative||Unknown||Nepal||Sarlahi district, Southern Nepal||Rural||Community||93 TBAs.|
|Geçkil ||Midwifery. 2009||Descriptive||2004||Turkey||Adiyaman||Urban||Facility||273 mothers.|
|Ghosh ||J Biosoc Sci. 2010||Qualitative||2008||India||Uttar Pradesh||Peri-urban||Community and facility||892 women.|
|Gilani ||Rural Remote Health. 2014||Community-based, cross-sectional||2011||Pakistan||Muzaffarabad in Azad Jammu & Kashmir||Urban and rural||Community and facility||104 mothers of neonates with current illness or illness within previous 2 weeks.|
|Grant ||Paediatr Child Health. 2014||Qualitative, cross-sectional||2013||Uganda||Luwero district, Bamunanika sub-district||Rural||Not indicated||101 mothers or infant caregivers of deceased infants.|
|Gul ||Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2014||Cross-sectional||2010||Pakistan||Karachi||Urban||Community and facility||170 mothers.|
|Herlihy ||PLoS One. 2013||Qualitative||2010||Zambia||Southern. Choma and Monze districts (rural) Livingstone and Mazabuka (urban)||Urban and rural||Community and facility||
36 FGDs with grandmothers, breastfeeding mothers, midwives, TBAs.|
42 IDIs with CHWs, community leaders, health professionals, religious leaders, TBAs, traditional healers.
|Hill ||Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010||Qualitative||
|Ghana||Brong Ahafo region||Rural||Community||
9167 quantitative surveys of women who delivered between April 2008 and May 2009.|
25 birth narratives.
30 IDS with women delivered in past 2 months.
2 FGDs with women delivered in past year or were pregnant.
20 IDIs and 6 FGDs with birth attendants/grandmothers.
12 IDIs and 2 FGDs with husbands.
|Jennings ||Matern Child Health J. 2015||Pre-post randomized design; data drawn from interviews and observations||Unknown||Benin||Zou/Collines Region||Rural||Facility||411 mother-newborn pairs.|
|Karas ||J Trop Pediatr. 2012||Data collected within a community-based, cluster-randomized trial||2002–2006||Nepal||Sarlahi district, Southern Nepal||Rural||Community and facility||23662 infants.|
|Kayom ||Int J Pediatr. 2015||Cross-sectional descriptive||2012||Uganda||Kampala||Urban||Community and facility||335 mothers.|
|Kesterton ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009||Mixed-methods||Quantitative (1996–1998), qualitative (2004–2005)||India||Karnataka||Rural||Community and facility||
388 surveys of mothers.|
39 IDIs with mothers, grandmothers, birth attendants, and key informants.
|Khadduri ||J Perinatol. 2008||Qualitative||2000||Pakistan||Haripur District, NW Frontier Province||Rural and peri-urban||Community and facility||
64 IDIs with mothers, fathers, TBAs.|
|Khan ||J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2013||Cross-sectional||Unknown||Pakistan||Gilgit-Baltistan||Rural||Not indicated||708 mothers.|
|Kumar ||Lancet. 2008||Cluster-randomized, controlled efficacy trial||2006||India||Shivgarh, Uttar Pradesh||Rural||Community and facility||3400 mothers.|
|Madhu ||Indian J Community Med. 2009||Cross-sectional||2006||India||Kengeri, Karnataka||Rural||Community and facility||100 mothers.|
|Mangwi Ayiasi ||PLoS One. 2016||Randomized community intervention trial||2013–2014||Uganda||Masindi and Kiryandongo districts||Not indicated||Community and facility||1385 pregnant women.|
|Memon ||J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2013||Cross-sectional KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices)||2005–2006||Pakistan||Matiari district, Sindh Province||Rural||Community and facility||1490 mothers.|
|Moran ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009||Mixed-methods||2007||Bangladesh||Dhaka slums (Korali and Kamrangir Char)||Urban||Community and facility||36 women who were currently pregnant or those who had had at least one delivery.|
|Moyer ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012||Qualitative||2010||Ghana||Northern. Kassena-Nankana districts||Rural||Community and facility||
72 IDIs with women with newborns, health care providers, TBAs/herbalists, community leaders.|
Unspecified number of FGDs with grandmothers, compound heads, heads of household.
|Mrisho ||Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008||Qualitative||2005–2007||Tanzania||Lindi and Mtwara regions||Rural||Community and facility||
40 IDIs with recently delivered women, pregnant women, TBAs.|
16 FGDs with women who had given birth at least once.
|Mullany ||Am J Epidemiol. 2007||Data collected within a community-based, cluster-randomized trial.||2002–2005||Nepal||Southern||Not indicated||Not indicated||15755 newborns.|
|Mullany ||Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009||Data collected within a community-based, cluster-randomized trial.||2004–2005||Tanzania||Pemba Island||Rural||Community and facility||1653 infants (but only those born at home were evaluated for substances applied ).|
|Raza ||J Postgrad Med. 2004||Case–control||1998–2001 (record review parameters)||Pakistan||Karachi (squatter settlement)||Urban||Not indicated||375 newborns.|
|Sacks ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015||Qualitative||2010–2011||Zambia||Choma District||Rural||Community and facility||36 IDIs, 5 FGDs, and 8 observational sessions with recently-delivered women, TBAs, clinic and hospital staff.|
|Shamba ||J Health Popul Nutr. 2013||Qualitative||2008||Tanzania||Lindi Region||Rural||Community||
11 birth narratives.|
6 FGDs with women who delivered at home.
2 FGDs with birth attendants (any woman who assisted someone with a delivery in the last year).
|Sharkey ||Health Policy Plan. 2016||Mixed-methods||2012||Sierra Leone||Kambia, Tonkolili, Kailahun, and Pujehun Districts||Rural||Community and facility||
98 IDIs and 24 FGDs with pregnant women, caretakers, mothers, fathers, health care providers, CHWs, and TBAs.|
6000 household surveys.
|Sharma ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016||Qualitative||2012||Nepal||Not indicated||Rural||Not indicated||5 IDIs and 14 FGDs with mothers, grandmothers, men, and health care workers.|
|Sreeramareddy ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2006||Cross-sectional survey||2006||Nepal||Western||Urban||Community||240 mothers.|
|Upadhyay ||Acta Paediatr. 2012||Cross-sectional survey||2010||India||Haryana (northern India)||Rural||Community and facility||415 mothers.|
|Waiswa ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008||Qualitative||2006–2007||Uganda||Busoga (eastern Uganda)||Rural||Community and facility||
10 FGDs with younger mothers (aged <30 years), older mothers with grandchildren, fathers, older children (up to age 13) who act as child minders.|
KIIs with 6 health workers and 4 TBAs.
|Waiswa ||BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010||Cross-sectional||2007||Uganda||Iganga-Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site||Rural||Community and facility||393 mothers.|
|Walsh ||Glob Public Health. 2015||Qualitative||2013||Haiti||Petit-Gôave||Rural||Community and facility||5 FGDs with mothers with newborns, mothers with children under age two, and grandmothers and pregnant women, TBAs, CHWs, and traditional healers (voudou priests and priestesses).|
|Winch ||Lancet. 2005||Mixed methods||2001–2002||Bangladesh||Beanibazar, Zakiganj, and Kanaighat sub-districts in Sylhet District||Not indicated||Community and facility||
39 IDIs with mothers, fathers, grandmothers, and TBAs.|
6050 household surveys of mothers.