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Table 1 Articles included in this review, with study details

From: Umbilical cord-care practices in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

First author Journal Study type Data collection year(s) Country Region Rural/urban Place of birth Sample size
Abhulimhen-Iyoha [12] Niger J Clin Pract. 2012 Cross-sectional survey 2009 Nigeria Benin City Urban Community and facility 497 mothers.
Adejuyigbe [30] Matern Child Nutr. 2008 Mixed-methods, cross-sectional 2003 Nigeria Ekiti State Rural Community and facility 60 household surveys.
12 IDIs (healers, TBAs, birth home staff, nurses/midwives).
8 FGDs (total of 42 individuals. Elderly males and females).
4 questionnaires (fathers and grandmothers).
Alam [54] J Perinatol. 2008 Cross-sectional, descriptive 2006 Bangladesh Sylhet District Not indicated Community and facility 400 household surveys.
60 semi-structured interviews: 20 recently delivered women, 20 senior females, 10 husbands, 10 senior males.
Alhaji [37] Niger Med J. 2013 Retrospective record review 2009–2010 Nigeria North-eastern Not indicated Community and facility 51 cases of tetanus.
Alparslan [13] Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2013 Descriptive and cross-sectional 2008 Turkey Sivas Urban Not indicated 263 mothers.
Amare [14] BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2014 Qualitative 2013 Ethiopia Oromia, Amhara, Tigray, and SNNPR (Sidama Zone) Rural Community and facility IDIs with 32 total.
One community in each region. Each study community:
6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 TBAs, 2 HEWs.
Ayaz [55] PLoS One. 2010 Community-based, cross-sectional 2006 Pakistan Karachi (squatter settlement) Urban Community and facility 565 women between 28 to 33 days post-delivery.
Byaruhanga [7] Midwifery. 2011 Qualitative 2008 Uganda Kayunga, Soroti, and Ntugamo Districts Rural Community 6 IDIs with TBAs.
9 FGDs with 10 to 15 participants each (mothers, older females, and husbands).
Callaghan-Koru [56] BMC Pediatr. 2013 Cross-sectional household survey of newborn care practices 2012 Ethiopia Tigray, Oromiya, Amhara, and SNNPR Not indicated Community and facility 218 mothers.
Darmstadt [31] Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Qualitative 2000 Egypt Governorates of Aswan, Luxor, and Fayoum Rural Not indicated 217 households interviewed within 7 days of birth.
Degefie [16] BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2014 Qualitative 2012 Ethiopia Sidama Zone of SNNP and East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Rural Community and facility 8 KIIs with grandmothers.
27 IDIs with mothers.
7 IDIs with TBAs.
15 IDIs with fathers.
Dhingra [24] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014 Qualitative Not stated Tanzania Pemba Island Urban and rural Community and facility 11 FGDs and 80 IDIs with mothers, grandmothers, untrained and trained TBAs.
Falle [57] J Health Popul Nutr. 2009 Qualitative Unknown Nepal Sarlahi district, Southern Nepal Rural Community 93 TBAs.
Geçkil [25] Midwifery. 2009 Descriptive 2004 Turkey Adiyaman Urban Facility 273 mothers.
Ghosh [58] J Biosoc Sci. 2010 Qualitative 2008 India Uttar Pradesh Peri-urban Community and facility 892 women.
Gilani [59] Rural Remote Health. 2014 Community-based, cross-sectional 2011 Pakistan Muzaffarabad in Azad Jammu & Kashmir Urban and rural Community and facility 104 mothers of neonates with current illness or illness within previous 2 weeks.
Grant [60] Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Qualitative, cross-sectional 2013 Uganda Luwero district, Bamunanika sub-district Rural Not indicated 101 mothers or infant caregivers of deceased infants.
Gul [34] Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2014 Cross-sectional 2010 Pakistan Karachi Urban Community and facility 170 mothers.
Herlihy [8] PLoS One. 2013 Qualitative 2010 Zambia Southern. Choma and Monze districts (rural) Livingstone and Mazabuka (urban) Urban and rural Community and facility 36 FGDs with grandmothers, breastfeeding mothers, midwives, TBAs.
42 IDIs with CHWs, community leaders, health professionals, religious leaders, TBAs, traditional healers.
Hill [15] Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Qualitative 2006–2007 (qualitative)
2008–2009 (quantitative)
Ghana Brong Ahafo region Rural Community 9167 quantitative surveys of women who delivered between April 2008 and May 2009.
25 birth narratives.
30 IDS with women delivered in past 2 months.
2 FGDs with women delivered in past year or were pregnant.
20 IDIs and 6 FGDs with birth attendants/grandmothers.
12 IDIs and 2 FGDs with husbands.
Jennings [61] Matern Child Health J. 2015 Pre-post randomized design; data drawn from interviews and observations Unknown Benin Zou/Collines Region Rural Facility 411 mother-newborn pairs.
Karas [62] J Trop Pediatr. 2012 Data collected within a community-based, cluster-randomized trial 2002–2006 Nepal Sarlahi district, Southern Nepal Rural Community and facility 23662 infants.
Kayom [9] Int J Pediatr. 2015 Cross-sectional descriptive 2012 Uganda Kampala Urban Community and facility 335 mothers.
Kesterton [63] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009 Mixed-methods Quantitative (1996–1998), qualitative (2004–2005) India Karnataka Rural Community and facility 388 surveys of mothers.
39 IDIs with mothers, grandmothers, birth attendants, and key informants.
8 FGDs.
Khadduri [33] J Perinatol. 2008 Qualitative 2000 Pakistan Haripur District, NW Frontier Province Rural and peri-urban Community and facility 64 IDIs with mothers, fathers, TBAs.
34 FGDs.
Khan [10] J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2013 Cross-sectional Unknown Pakistan Gilgit-Baltistan Rural Not indicated 708 mothers.
Kumar [64] Lancet. 2008 Cluster-randomized, controlled efficacy trial 2006 India Shivgarh, Uttar Pradesh Rural Community and facility 3400 mothers.
Madhu [32] Indian J Community Med. 2009 Cross-sectional 2006 India Kengeri, Karnataka Rural Community and facility 100 mothers.
Mangwi Ayiasi [65] PLoS One. 2016 Randomized community intervention trial 2013–2014 Uganda Masindi and Kiryandongo districts Not indicated Community and facility 1385 pregnant women.
Memon [66] J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2013 Cross-sectional KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices) 2005–2006 Pakistan Matiari district, Sindh Province Rural Community and facility 1490 mothers.
Moran [16] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009 Mixed-methods 2007 Bangladesh Dhaka slums (Korali and Kamrangir Char) Urban Community and facility 36 women who were currently pregnant or those who had had at least one delivery.
Moyer [21] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012 Qualitative 2010 Ghana Northern. Kassena-Nankana districts Rural Community and facility 72 IDIs with women with newborns, health care providers, TBAs/herbalists, community leaders.
Unspecified number of FGDs with grandmothers, compound heads, heads of household.
Mrisho [23] Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Qualitative 2005–2007 Tanzania Lindi and Mtwara regions Rural Community and facility 40 IDIs with recently delivered women, pregnant women, TBAs.
16 FGDs with women who had given birth at least once.
Mullany [67] Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Data collected within a community-based, cluster-randomized trial. 2002–2005 Nepal Southern Not indicated Not indicated 15755 newborns.
Mullany [26] Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Data collected within a community-based, cluster-randomized trial. 2004–2005 Tanzania Pemba Island Rural Community and facility 1653 infants (but only those born at home were evaluated for substances applied [1158]).
Raza [36] J Postgrad Med. 2004 Case–control 1998–2001 (record review parameters) Pakistan Karachi (squatter settlement) Urban Not indicated 375 newborns.
Sacks [18] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Qualitative 2010–2011 Zambia Choma District Rural Community and facility 36 IDIs, 5 FGDs, and 8 observational sessions with recently-delivered women, TBAs, clinic and hospital staff.
Shamba [19] J Health Popul Nutr. 2013 Qualitative 2008 Tanzania Lindi Region Rural Community 11 birth narratives.
6 FGDs with women who delivered at home.
2 FGDs with birth attendants (any woman who assisted someone with a delivery in the last year).
Sharkey [11] Health Policy Plan. 2016 Mixed-methods 2012 Sierra Leone Kambia, Tonkolili, Kailahun, and Pujehun Districts Rural Community and facility 98 IDIs and 24 FGDs with pregnant women, caretakers, mothers, fathers, health care providers, CHWs, and TBAs.
6000 household surveys.
Sharma [28] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016 Qualitative 2012 Nepal Not indicated Rural Not indicated 5 IDIs and 14 FGDs with mothers, grandmothers, men, and health care workers.
Sreeramareddy [68] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2006 Cross-sectional survey 2006 Nepal Western Urban Community 240 mothers.
Upadhyay [29] Acta Paediatr. 2012 Cross-sectional survey 2010 India Haryana (northern India) Rural Community and facility 415 mothers.
Waiswa [20] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008 Qualitative 2006–2007 Uganda Busoga (eastern Uganda) Rural Community and facility 10 FGDs with younger mothers (aged <30 years), older mothers with grandchildren, fathers, older children (up to age 13) who act as child minders.
KIIs with 6 health workers and 4 TBAs.
Waiswa [69] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010 Cross-sectional 2007 Uganda Iganga-Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site Rural Community and facility 393 mothers.
Walsh [22] Glob Public Health. 2015 Qualitative 2013 Haiti Petit-Gôave Rural Community and facility 5 FGDs with mothers with newborns, mothers with children under age two, and grandmothers and pregnant women, TBAs, CHWs, and traditional healers (voudou priests and priestesses).
Winch [27] Lancet. 2005 Mixed methods 2001–2002 Bangladesh Beanibazar, Zakiganj, and Kanaighat sub-districts in Sylhet District Not indicated Community and facility 39 IDIs with mothers, fathers, grandmothers, and TBAs.
6050 household surveys of mothers.
  1. Abbreviations
  2. CHW community health worker
  3. FGD focus group discussion
  4. IDI in-depth interview
  5. KII key informant interview
  6. TBA traditional birth attendant