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Table 4 Regression analyses for the association between severity of NVP and global quality of life controlling for demographic variables, and comorbidity. (N = 447)

From: The burden of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: severe impacts on quality of life, daily life functioning and willingness to become pregnant again – results from a cross-sectional study

  Univariate models Model 1 Model 2
Unstandardized regression coefficients (β) (95% CI) p-value Unstandardized regression coefficients (β) (95% CI) p-value Unstandardized regression coefficients (β) (95% CI) p-value
Severity of NVP
 Mild Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Moderate –7.8 (–13.3,–2.4) 0.005 –6.7 (–12.0,–1.4) 0.014 –5.9 (–11.2,–0.5) 0.032
 Severe –13.1 (–19.1,–7.0) <0.001 –11.7 (–17.6,–5.7) <0.001 –10.9 (–16.9,–4.9) <0.001
Parity
 0 previous live births Ref. Ref. Ref.
 ≥ 1 previous live births –4.7 (–7.9,–1.4) 0.005 –6.6 (–10.0,–3.1) <0.001 –6.7 (–10.2,–3.2) <0.001
Age, years 0.3 (–0.1, 0.6) 0.100 0.2 (–0.2, 0.6) 0.299 0.2 (–0.2, 0.6) 0.320
Body Mass Index (BMI) a
 Underweight –4.1 0.2 –2.4 (–10.5, 5.8) 0.565 –1.7 (–9.9, 6.4) 0.677
 Normal weight Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Overweight –2.7 0.1 –3.6 (–7.8, 0.5) 0.087 –4.0 (–8.2, 0.1) 0.056
 Obese –3.7 0.045 –5.6 (–10.1,–1.1) 0.014 –5.5 (–9.9,–1.0) 0.016
Smoking
 No Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes 2.2 (–6.4, 10.7) 0.617 6.0 (–2.5, 14.4) 0.166 5.9 (–2.5, 14.3) 0.168
Use of folic acid
 No Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes, before and/or during pregnancy 1.8 (–5.5, 9.0) 0.634 –1.4 (–8.4, 5.6) 0.696 –1.1 (–8.1, 5.9) 0.762
Marital status
 Married/cohabitating Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Not married/cohabiting –6.0 (–11.9,–0.1) 0.046 –6.8 (–12.6,–1.0) 0.021 –6.9 (–12.7,–1.1) 0.019
Education b
 Primary or secondary –8.5 (–12.9,–4.1) <0.001 –6.1 (–11.0,–1.2) 0.014 –6.1 (–11.0,–1.2) 0.015
 Bachelor degree –6.4 (–10.5,–2.3) 0.002 –5.1 (–9.2,–1.0) 0.015 –5.0 (–9.1,–0.8) 0.018
 Master degree Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Other –14.2 (–22.3,–6.1) 0.001 –13.0 (–21.2,–4.8) 0.002 –12.8 (–21.0,–4.6) 0.002
Work situation
 Student –4.1 (–10.3, 2.1) 0.198 –2.6 (–8.8, 3.6) 0.407 –3.3 (–9.5, 2.9) 0.290
 Employed Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Unemployed –3.3 (–10.2, 3.6) 0.344 3.3 (–3.9, 10.5) 0.366 4.2 (–3.0, 11.4) 0.256
 Other 0.9 (–6.7, 8.5) 0.815 2.9 (–4.4, 10.3) 0.436 4.4 (–3.0, 11.8) 0.245
Number of short term illnesses
  ≤ 2 Ref. Ref.
 3–4 –4.2 (–8.4, 0.1) 0.056    –3.2 (–7.3, 1.0) 0.133
  ≥ 5 –6.2 (–10.7,–1.8) 0.007    –5.5 (–9.9,–1.1) 0.014
Chronic disease
 No Ref. Ref.
 Yes –2.2 (–5.5, 1.1) 0.184    –2.2 (–5.4, 1.1) 0.187
Adjusted R square    0.10   0.11  
  1. Abbreviations: Ref = reference category. Models were estimated using generalized linear models with QOLS as dependent variable, identity link function and assuming a normal distribution of QOLS. Only women who were currently pregnant are included in the analyses. Bold p-values indicate significant differences between the groups
  2. aBody mass index (BMI) is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres; underweight: <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2; overweight: 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, obese ≥30 kg/m2
  3. underweight:
  4. bPrimary: ≤10 years of education (the Norwegian compulsory primary + secondary school), secondary: 10–12 years (high school/upper secondary or vocational school)