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Table 1 Maternal characteristics according to severity of NVP as defined by PUQE

From: The burden of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: severe impacts on quality of life, daily life functioning and willingness to become pregnant again – results from a cross-sectional study

  PUQEa
Total Mild Moderate Severe p-valueb
N = 712 n (%) N = 62 n (%) N = 439 n (%) N = 210 n (%)  
Parity
 0 previous live births 382 (53.7) 38 (61.3) 241 (54.9) 103 (49.0) 0.185
 ≥ 1 previous live births 327 (45.9) 24 (38.7) 197 (44.9) 106 (50.5)  
Age, years
 Under 25 145 (20.4) 11 (17.7) 87 (19.8) 46 (21.9) 0.443
 25–29 273 (38.3) 27 (43.5) 157 (35.8) 89 (42.4)  
 30–39 281 (39.5) 23 (37.1) 187 (42.6) 71 (33.8)  
 Over 40 13 (1.8) 1 (1.6) 8 (1.8) 4 (1.9)  
Body Mass Index (BMI) c
 Underweight 33 (4.6) 2 (3.2) 23 (5.2) 8 (3.8) 0.615
 Normal weight 421 (59.1) 44 (71.0) 253 (57.6) 124 (59.0)  
 Overweight 139 (19.5) 10 (16.1) 86 (19.6) 42 (20.0)  
 Obese 118 (16.6) 6 (9.7) 76 (17.3) 36 (17.1)  
Smoking
 No 684 (96.1) 61 (98.4) 422 (96.1) 200 (95.2) 0.557
 Yes 27 (3.8) 1 (1.6) 16 (3.6) 10 (4.8)  
Use of folic acid
 Before and/or during pregnancy 673 (94.8) 57 (91.9) 419 (95.7) 197 (93.8) 0.270
 No 37 (5.2) 5 (8.1) 19 (4.3) 13 (6.2)  
Marital status
 Married/cohabitating 661 (92.8) 55 (88.7) 408 (92.9) 197 (93.8) 0.363
 Not married/cohabiting 51 (7.2) 7 (11.3) 31 (7.1) 13 (6.2)  
Education d
 Primary or secondary 219 (30.8) 16 (25.8) 127 (28.9) 76 (36.2) 0.230
 Bachelor degree 292 (41.0) 25 (40.3) 183 (41.7) 84 (40.0)  
 Master degree 170 (23.9) 20 (32.3) 110 (25.1) 40 (19.0)  
 Other 30 (4.2) 1 (1.6) 19 (4.3) 10 (4.8)  
Work situation
 Student 57 (8.0) 6 (9.7) 35 (8.0) 16 (7.6) 0.458
 Employed 570 (80.1) 51 (82.3) 351 (80.0) 168 (80.0)  
 Unemployed 53 (7.4) 1 (1.6) 32 (7.3) 19 (9.0)  
 Other 32 (4.5) 4 (6.5) 21 (4.8) 7 (3.3)  
  1. Abbreviations: PUQE, 24 h Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis; NVP, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. Numbers do not always add up due to missing numbers
  3. aAs classified by PUQE: mild: ≤6 points; moderate: 7–12 points; severe ≥13
  4. bChi-square test or Fisher’s exact test when expected count was less than 5. Adjusted for all other variables in the table
  5. cBody mass index (BMI) is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres
  6. underweight: <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2; overweight: 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, obese ≥30 kg/m2. Pre-pregnancy BMI is given
  7. dPrimary: ≤10 years of education (the Norwegian compulsory primary + secondary school)
  8. secondary: 11-13 years (high school/upper secondary or vocational school)