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Table 1 Characteristics of partnered mothers, according to pregnancy intention. True counts and weighted proportions and means are shown

From: Unplanned pregnancy and subsequent psychological distress in partnered women: a cross-sectional study of the role of relationship quality and wider social support

  All Planned pregnancy Unplanned Pregnancy
   All Happy Ambiv. Unhappy
N 12,462 8,119 4,343 3087 475 781
(weighted %) (100) (67.2) (32.8) (23.3) (3.5) (6.0)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Maternal age (yrs), mean (SD) 30.5 (5.3) 31.1 (4.7) 29.3 (6.0)*** 29.2 (6.0)*** 28.9 (6.3)*** 30.0 (6.0)***
Ethnicity (BME) 8.6 7.3 11.2*** 10.9**** 14.1**** 10.6**
Socioeconomic status    **** **** **** ****
 Managerial/professional 54.3 60.2 42.3 43.7 33.2 42.3
 Intermediate 20.9 20.1 22.6 22.7 25.4 20.9
 Routine/Manual 22.9 18.1 32.5 31.3 38.6 33.7
 Long-term unempl/never 1.9 1.6 2.5 2.3 2.8 3.1
Education    **** **** **** ****
 High (NVQ 4 + 5) 39.3 43.8 30.0 31.6 22.5 28.2
 Medium (NVQ 3) 15.0 14.7 15.7 16.4 14.7 13.8
 Low (NVQ1 + 2) 36.5 34.5 40.5 38.6 45.9 44.8
 Other/none of the above 9.2 7.0 13.8 13.4 17.0 13.2
Pregnancy-related factors
First child 40.3 41.2 38.5** 43.7 28.8**** 24.1****
Gestation at confirmation of pregnancy, mean (SD) 7.1 (3.2) 6.7 (2.7) 7.8 (3.9)**** 7.8 (3.7)**** 8.7 (4.7)**** 8.3 (4.2)****
Preterm birth 7.1 6.6 8.1** 7.9* 8.3 8.8
Multiple birth 1.6 1.8 1.2* 1.1* 1.3 1.5
Type of delivery    **** * **** ****
 Normal vaginal 66.0 64.3 69.6 67.3 76.5 74.3
 Instrumental 11.1 12.1 9.1 10.0 8.5 5.9
 Planned section 10.0 10.4 9.1 9.4 5.9 10.1
 Emergency section 12.8 13.2 12.2 13.3 9.1 9.8
Smoking in pregnancy    **** **** **** ****
 None 71.4 76.4 61.1 63.1 54.6 57.3
 Gave up 12.6 11.1 15.5 15.8 14.9 14.8
 Kept smoking 16.0 12.4 23.4 21.1 30.6 28.0
Partnership characteristics
Relationship quality (mean GRIMS, SD): higher is better 28.0 (4.6) 28.4 (4.4) 27.3 (4.8)*** 27.7 (4.7)*** 26.5 (4.9) *** 26.0 (5.2) ***
Marital status (% married) 72.9 80.4 57.7**** 58.8*** 49.2*** 58.2***
Social support
“No-one to share my feelings with”, % agree 5.3 4.5 6.9 5.6 10.2 10.0
“I have other parents I can talk to”, % disagree 9.3 8.1 11.6 10.4 14.5 14.2
“My family would help, if they could”, % disagree 5.9 5.8 6.1 5.0 4.8 11.2
Limited social contact - Sees friends or family < weekly 8.7 8.4 9.5 8.8 9.6 12.1**
Psychological Distress, modified Malaise Inventory score ≥4
Yes 11.6 9.6 15.6**** 13.0**** 21.4**** 22.4****
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001 for chi-squared test, where compared to the Planned pregnancy group