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Table 2 Determinants of diabetes in pregnancy

From: Self-reported diabetes during pregnancy in the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: extent and social determinants

Characteristic Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
OR SE OR SE OR SE OR SE
Age 1.05** 0.01 1.05** 0.01    1.04** 0.01
Race
 African 1   1     1  
 non-African 2.06** 0.5 1.91* 0.59    1.91* 0.53
Education
 None 1   1     1  
 Primary 4.18* 2.89 3.41 2.32    2.54 1.81
 Secondary 3.53* 2.15 3.76* 2.37    2.68 1.72
 Tertiary 4.48* 3.08 4.14 3.11    3.09 2.29
Employment
 Unemployed 1   1      
 Informal 1.32 0.46 0.82 0.36     
 Formal 1.08 0.27 0.94 0.28     
Residence
 Rural 1   1      
 Urban 0.62* 0.15 0.69 0.21     
Household income
 Low 1   1     1  
 Medium 0.78 0.22 0.78 0.23    0.77 0.24
 High 0.74 0.21 0.51* 0.18    0.58 0.2
Family history
 No 1     1   1  
 Yes 3.57** 0.85    3.6** 0.9 3.04** 0.8
Self-rated health
 Bad 1     1    
 Moderate 0.63 0.31    0.67 0.33   
 Good 0.45 0.2    0.46 0.2   
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; OR odds ratio, SE standard error