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Table 1 Characteristics by maternal country of birth (n = 34,721)

From: Maternal Asian ethnicity and obstetric intrapartum intervention: a retrospective cohort study

  Australia/NZ South Asia South East Asia P value
(n = 17149) (n = 7874) (n = 6879)
Maternal age groups
  < 20 years 687(4.0%) 37(0.5%) 43(0.6%) <0.001
 20–30years 7476(43.5%) 4181(53.1%) 2787(40.5%)  
  > 30 years 9016(52.5%) 3656(46.4%) 4049(58.9%)  
Maternal BMI (kg/m2)
  < 19 561(3.3%) 461(5.9%) 798(11.7%) <0.001
 19–24.9 7121(41.9%) 4161(53%) 4716(69.1%)  
 25–29.9 4667(27.4%) 2404(30.6%) 1073(15.7%)  
  ≥ 30 4662(27.4%) 820(10.5%) 240(3.5%)  
Nulliparous 7300(42.5%) 3914(49.7%) 3247(47.2%) <0.001
Interpreter required 88(0.5%)a 1479(18.8%) 2441(35.5%) <0.001
Private patient 2946(17.1%) 602(7.6%) 653(90.5%) <0.001
Smoker 2797(16.3%) 24(0.3%) 75(1.1%) <0.001
Previous cesarean 2341(13.6%) 1073(13.6%) 711(10.3%) <0.001
First trimester ultrasound 14,926(86.9%) 6549(83.2%) 5481(79.7%) <0.001
Pre-existing hypertension 230(1.3%) 36(0.5%) 29(0.4%) <0.001
Pre-existing diabetes 181(1.1%) 81(1.0%) 39(0.6%) 0.001
Pre-existing thyroid disease 384(2.2%) 435(5.5%) 141(2.0%) <0.001
Gestational diabetes 826(4.8%) 892(11.3%) 778(11.3%) <0.001
Gestational Hypertension/Pre-eclampsia/HELLP 918(5.3%) 242(3.1%) 147(2.1%) <0.001
Labor induced 4100(23.9%) 1841(23.3%) 1067(15.5%) <0.001
Labor augmented 3286(19.1%) 1810(23%) 1714 (24.9%) <0.001
Epidural 3626(21.1%) 1396(17.7%) 1015(14.8%) <0.001
Length of 1st stage of Labor (hours)b 4.3(1.8–8.0) 5.3(2.3–9.2) 5.1(2.4–9.2) <0.001
Length of 2nd stage of Labor (mins)b 15(0–48) 19(0–59) 20(4–58) <0.001
Gestational age
 37–41 + 6 weeks 16,851(98.1%) 7760(98.6%) 6794(98.8%) <0.001
  ≥ 42 weeks 328(1.9%) 114(1.4%) 85(1.2%)  
Small for gestational age <10th centile 1592(9.3%) 1266(16.1%) 896(13%) <0.001
Birthweight of baby (g) 3491(498) 3309(460) 3312(426) <0.001
Baby admission to NICU 146(0.8%) 62(0.8%) 44(0.6%) <0.001
Apgar < 7 at 5 min 292(1.7%) 125(1.6%) 85(1.2%) 0.03
Fetal Compromise in Labour 4231(24.6%) 2369(30.1%) 1588(23.1%) <0.001
  1. a10 Australian women were deaf and required Auslan interpreters
  2. bLength of first and second stage – median and interquartile range (25th-75th centile)