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Table 3 Adjusted multivariate logistic regression of perinatal mortality in infants born during the Cash & Carry and NHIS systems in Northern Region

From: Perinatal mortality among infants born during health user-fees (Cash & Carry) and the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) eras in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

Variables Cash & Carry period NHIS period
Adjusted† Adjusted†
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Maternal age
  < 18 (RC) 1 1
 18–24 0.41 [0.18, 0.88]* 0.62 [0.18, 2.07]
 25–34 0.44 [0.20, 0.96]* 0.56 [0.17, 1.85]
 35 > 0.72 [0.33, 1.61] 0.69 [0.20, 2.35]
Maternal parity
 None (RC) 1 1
 One 0.73 [0.50, 1.06] 1.10 [0.70, 1.70]
 Two 0.77 [0.51, 1.16] 1.24 [0.76, 2.02]
 Three 1.87 [1.33, 2.63]*** 1.51 [0.88, 2.60]
 Four-plus 1.61 [1.18, 2.21]** 2.12 [1.23, 3.64]**
Type of birth
 Caesarean (RC) 1 1
 Vagina 0.41 [0.32, 0.54]*** 0.60 [0.44, 0.83]**
Nature of delivery
 Twins (RC) 1 1
 Singleton 0.41 [0..30, 0.57]*** 1.34 [0.77, 2.34]
Sex
 Male (RC) 1 1
 Female 1.08 [0.85, 1.35] 0.96 [0.72, 1.28]
Blood loss after delivery
  < 200 (RC) 1 1
 200–250 0.61 [0.43, 0.85]** 1.04 [0.69, 1.57]
  > 250 1.81 [0.57, 1.16] 1.62 [0.89, 2.93]
Fetal heart rate (bpm)
  < 130 (RC) 1 1
 130–140 0.80 [0.35, 1.80] 0.40 [0.20, 0.80]*
  > 140 0.29 [0.29, 1.67] 0.85 [0.33, 2.14]
  1. Note. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, RC reference category; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001, p-values obtained from multivariable binary logistic regression analysis (Wald test statistic); † = Adjusted for all other variables in the model known to influence the outcome