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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of perinatal mortality among infants delivered at a tertiary hospital facility during “Cash and Carry” and NHIS periods in Northern Region

From: Perinatal mortality among infants born during health user-fees (Cash & Carry) and the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) eras in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

Variables Cash & Carry period   NHIS period   
n(%) n(%)
2000 2001 2002 2003 Fisher’s exact 2008 2009 2010 2011 Fisher’s exact
Annual mortalities 28(8) 105(9) 71(6) 112(9)   60(5) 44(4) 56(5) 33(3)  
Mother's age
  < 18 0(0) 6(6) 0(0) 2(2) 0.001 3(5) 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) 0.504
 18–24 10(36) 28(26) 23(32) 29(26) 22(37) 10(23) 17(31) 10(30)
 25–34 14(50) 45(43) 29(41) 61(54) 22(37) 28(63) 31(55) 19(58)
  ≥ 35 4(14) 26(25) 19(27) 20(18) 13(21) 6(14) 8(14) 4(12)
Parity
 None 7(28) 34(33) 22(31) 36(34) 0.001 21(35) 6(13) 21(38) 11(34) 0.278
 One 7(28) 11(11) 9(13) 14(13) 10(17) 11(25) 11(20) 3(9)
 Two 2(8) 8(8) 8(11) 14(13) 6(10) 11(25) 8(14) 6(18)
 Three 5(20) 20(20) 12(17) 22(20) 10(17) 4(9) 6(11) 5(15)
 Four-plus 4(16) 29(28) 20(28) 22(20) 13(21) 12(27) 9(16) 8(24)
Type of birth
 Caesarean 4(14) 20(19) 22(31) 39(35) 0.001 20(33) 8(18) 15(27) 14(42) 0.004
 Vaginal 24(86) 85(81) 49(69) 73(65) 40(67) 36(82) 41(73) 19(58)
Nature of birth
 Singleton 24(86) 80(76) 57(80) 100(89) 0.001 56(93) 40(91) 52(93) 2(6) 0.376
 Twin 4(14) 25(24) 14(20) 12(11) 4(7) 4(9) 4(7) 31(94)
Sex 
 Male 15(54) 53(51) 31(44) 66(59) 0.556 27(45) 24(55) 31(55) 13(39) 0.825
 Female 13(46) 52(49) 40(56) 46(41) 33(55) 20(45) 25(45) 20(61)
Post-partum hemorrhage(ml)
  < 200 20(91) 17(22) 7(15) 19(28) 0.013 8(31) 8(23) 16(46) 10(59) 0.247
 200–250 1(4.5) 29(37) 17(38) 36(52) 14(54) 25(74) 11(31) 4(23)
  ≥ 250 1(4.5) 32(41) 21(47) 14(20) 4(15) 1(3) 8(23) 3(18)
Fetal heart rate (bpm)
  < 130 0(0) 2(12.5) 4(25) 1(4) 0.729 5(28) 3(20) 1(13) 2(22) 0.013
 130–140 0(0) 12(75) 11(69) 19(83) 12(67) 6(40) 7(87) 6(67)
  ≥ 140 0(0) 2(12.5) 1(6) 3(13) 1(5) 6(40) 0(0) 1(11)
  1. Note: ml milliliters, bpm beats per minute