Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of infants born at a tertiary hospital facility during the “Cash and Carry” and national health insurance scheme (NHIS) systems in Northern Region

From: Perinatal mortality among infants born during health user-fees (Cash & Carry) and the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) eras in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

Variables Cash & Carry period NHIS period  
n(%) n(%)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2008 2009 2010 2011
Annual births(N): 363 1223 1196 1175 1100 1109 1046 1100
Mother's age
  < 18 2(1) 19(2) 17(1) 14(1) 16(2) 10(1) 10(1) 6(1)
 18–24 124(34) 401(33) 414(35) 374(32) 333(30) 344(31) 293(28) 321(29)
 25–34 186(51) 628(51) 573(48) 616(52) 597(54) 578(52) 606(58) 626(57)
  ≥ 35 51(14) 175(14) 192(16) 171(15) 154(14) 177(16) 137(13) 147(13)
Parity
 None 122(34) 411(34) 448(37) 406(35) 388(35) 358(32) 347(33) 376(34)
 One 67(18) 245(21) 222(19) 237(20) 222(20) 224(20) 221(21) 220(20)
 Two 50(14) 177(15) 169(14) 178(15) 185(17) 192(17) 176(17) 192(17)
 Three 31(9) 155(13) 137(12) 146(13) 134(12) 120(11) 120(11) 151(14)
 Four-plus 54(15) 209(17) 219(18) 198(17) 170(15) 214(19) 165(16) 154(15)
Type of birth
 Caesarean 39(11) 148(12) 167(14) 209(18) 198(18) 199(18) 218(21) 250(23)
 Vaginal 324(89) 1075(88) 1029(86) 966(82) 902(82) 910(82) 828(79) 850(77)
Nature of birth
 Singleton 335(92) 1117(91) 1084(91) 1079(92) 994(90) 1013(91) 964(92) 974(89)
 Twin 28(8) 106(9) 112(9) 96(8) 106(10) 96(9) 82(8) 126(11)
Sex
 Male 204(56) 667(55) 625(52) 637(54) 575(52) 571(51) 561(54) 553(50)
 Female 159(44) 556(45) 571(48) 538(46) 525(48) 538(49) 485(46) 547(50)
Blood loss after delivery
  < 200 281(77) 170(14) 137(11) 127(11) 209(20) 209(19) 312(20) 343(31)
 200–250 13(4) 338(28) 574(48) 574(49) 304(28) 446(40) 299(29) 274(25)
  ≥ 250 3(1) 477(39) 257(21) 208(18) 65(6) 47(4) 258(25) 65(6)
Fetal heart rate
  < 130 8(2) 45(4) 124(10) 143(12) 111(10) 134(12) 77(7) 69(6)
 130–140 215(59) 751(61) 711(59) 714(61) 709(64) 610(55) 707(68) 692(63)
  ≥ 140 25(7) 82(7) 95(8) 107(9) 51(5) 129(12) 43(4) 112(10)