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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of pregnant women participating in our cohort by HG exposure status

From: Hyperemesis gravidarum and placental dysfunction disorders

  HG exposure P
No HG (n = 1833) Mild HG (n = 354) Severe HG (n = 46)
Demographic characteristics
Age (years) Median (IQR) 28.09 (8.7) 28.13 (7.4) 28.36 (9.1) 0.62
Women’s educationa 0.15
Low 413 (22.6) 73 (20.6) 10 (22.2)
Intermediate 1123 (61.4) 208 (58.8) 31 (68.9)
High 292 (16.0) 73 (20.6) 4 (8.9)
Partner’s educationa 0.23
Low 323 (17.7) 46 (13.0) 9 (20.0)
Intermediate 1199 (65.6) 241 (68.1) 30 (66.7)
High 305 (16.7) 67 (18.9) 6 (13.3)
Family incomeb     0.01*
  < 72 USD 197 (10.8) 26 (7.3) 5 (10.9)
72–180 USD 799 (43.6) 169 (47.7) 18 (39.1)
180–360 USD 529 (28.9) 126 (35.6) 16 (34.8)
  > 360 USD 124 (6.8) 17 (4.8) 3 (6.5)
Refused to answer 182 (9.9) 16 (4.5) 4 (8.7)
Health characteristics
Pre-pregnancy BMI Median (IQR) 22.0 (5.5) 22.2 (5.5) 23.2 (6.6) 0.59
Chronic hypertension 27 (1.5) 5 (1.4) 0 0.71
Type 2 diabetes 11 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 0 0.87
Partner’s smoking status 0.12
Smokes daily 394 (48.6) 70 (50.7) 8 (36.4)
Smokes occasionally 113 (13.9) 12 (8.7) 1 (4.5)
Doesn’t smoke 304 (37.5) 56 (40.6) 13 (59.1)
Obstetrics characteristics
Primigravida 480 (38.0) 112 (41.5) 12 (34.3) 0.50
Gestational age (weeks) at first visit Median (IQR) 16 (20) 9 (4.50) 10 (5.0) 0.00*
Reported complications in previous pregnancy  
No 1070 (84.6) 233 (86.0) 29 (82.9) 0.80
IUGR/SGA 3 (0.2) 0 0 0.70
Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy 44 (2.4) 11 (3.1) 1 (2.2) 0.74
Miscarriage 136 (7.4) 28 (7.9) 2 (4.3) 0.69
Female baby 651 (46) 133 (46.5) 22 (59.5) 0.27
Multiple pregnancy 27 (1.9) 1 (0.4) 0 0.12
Mode of delivery 0.08
Vaginal 871 (61.3) 168 (58.9) 24 (64.9)
Instrumental 33 (3.1) 11 (3.9) 4 (10.8)
Caesarean section 506 (35.6) 106 (37.2) 9 (24.3)
  1. Abbreviations: HG Hyperemesis gravidarum, USD United States Dollar, IUGR intra uterine growth restriction, SGA small for gestational age, IQR inter-quartile range. Results are median (inter-quartile range) or numbers (percentage); For continuous outcome variables Kruskall-Wallis test was used, for categorical variables, Pearson’s chi-square test
  2. aLow education = no education, elementary school, junior high school; Intermediate education = senior high school or above; High education = university
  3. bMean monthly total family income, estimated by the patient
  4. *P <0,05