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Table 2 Risk of antenatal, delivery and postpartum complications amongst cohort and comparison of risks between the 2 adherence groups

From: Provider adherence to first antenatal care guidelines and risk of pregnancy complications in public sector facilities: a Ghanaian cohort study

Complication Incidence (%) Complete adherence Incomplete adherence Cluster adjusted
N = 926 N = 449 N = 477 p-value
Maternal
 Malaria in pregnancy 113 (12.2) 56 (12.5) 57 (11.9) 0.81
 Antepartum vaginal bleeding 10 (1.1) 3 (0.7) 7 (1.5) 0.24
 PIH/pre-eclampsia/eclampsia 49 (5.3) 23 (5.1) 26 (5.5) 0.82
 Anemia in pregnancy 550 (59.4) 269 (59.9) 281 (58.9) 0.12
 Anemia developed after first antenatal visit 144 (15.5) 67 (14.9) 77 (16.1) 0.36
 Any antenatal complication 631 (68.1) 308 (68.6) 328 (68.7) 0.88
 Any antenatal complication (non-anemia) 207 (22.4) 99 (22.0) 108 (22.6) 0.83
 Delivery by Caesarean section 132 (14.3) 65 (14.5) 67 (14.0) 0.84
 Post-partum hemorrhage 19 (2.1) 6 (1.3) 13 (2.7) 0.14
 Delivery/post-delivery complication 41 (4.4) 17 (3.8) 24 (5.0) 0.82
 Any pregnancy related complication 635 (68.6) 310 (69.0) 325 (68.1) 0.87
 Any pregnancy related complication (non-anemia) 229 (24.4) 108 (24.1) 121 (25.4) 0.56
 Maternal mortality 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Neonatal
 Preterm 49 (5.3) 23 (5.1) 26 (5.5) 0.31
 Post-maturity 88 (9.5) 36 (8.0) 52 (10.9) 0.31
 Low birth weight 57 (6.1) 19 (4.2) 36 (7.5) 0.21
 Neonatal jaundice 58 (6.3) 29 (6.5) 29 (6.1) 0.21
 Asphyxia/difficulty in breathing 39 (4.2) 15 (3.3) 34 (7.1) 0.21
 Stillbirths 4 (0.4) 2 (0.4) 2 (0.4) 0.21
 Any neonatal complication 146 (15.8) 60 (13.4) 86 (18.0) 0.05
 Neonatal mortality (All cause) 13 (1.4) 6 (1.3) 7 (1.5) 0.87