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Table 2 Mode of delivery, maternal outcome, and appearance of stillborn babies

From: Stillbirths and quality of care during labour at the low resource referral hospital of Zanzibar: a case-control study

  Case-control study BW ≥2000 g
Cases Pre-hosp. Stillbirths Cases Intra-hosp. Stillbirths Controls Apgar 710
N (%)
Mode of delivery
Of all women in the study: (n = 67) (n = 72) (n = 249)
  Spontaneous vaginal 45 (67.2 %) 46 (63.9 %) 213 (85.5 %)
  Vaginal breech 3 (4.5 %) 5 (6.9 %) 5 (2.0 %)
  Vacuum extraction 1 (1.5 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)
  Caesarean sectiona,b 15 (22.4 %) 20 (27.8 %) 26 (10.4 %)
  Mode of delivery unknown 3 (4.5 %) 1 (1.4 %) 5 (2.0 %)
Maternal outcome
Of all women in the study: (n = 67) (n = 72) (n = 249)
  Maternal deaths 2 (3.0 %) 1 (1.4 %) 0 (0.0 %)
  Post partum haemorrhagec 7 (10.4 %) 10 (13.9 %) 14 (5.6 %)
  Episiotomy/spontaneous tearsd,e 6 (9.0 %) 19 (26.4 %) 79 (31.7 %)
Of vaginal deliveries: (n = 49) (n = 51) (n = 218)
  Prolonged admission, ≥1 dayf 9 (18.4 %) 0 (0.0 %) 3 (1.4 %)
Of caesarean sections: (n = 15) (n = 20) (n = 26)
  Prolonged admission, ≥5 days 1 (6.7 %) 3 (15.0 %) 2 (7.7 %)
‘Fresh’ versus ‘macerated’ stillbirths
Of all women in the study: (n = 67) (n = 72) (n = 249)
  Classification not recorded 36 (53.7 %) 41 (56.9 %) NA
  1. BW birthweight, CI confidence interval, NA not applicable; OR, odds ratio
  2. aOverall, 9/35 (26 %) of the caesarean sections with stillbirth were done prior to active labour, and 10/35 (29 %) in second stage. Among controls, this was the case for 13/26 (50 %) and 0/26 (0 %), respectively
  3. bDifference between stillbirths and controls: OR 2.94, 95 % CI 1.68–5.14
  4. cDifference between stillbirths and controls: OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.12–4.90
  5. dInformation was insufficient to distinguish between spontaneous vaginal tears and episiotomies
  6. eDifference between pre-hospital stillbirths and controls: OR 0.21, 95 % CI 0.09–0.51
  7. fDifference between pre-hospital stillbirths and controls: OR 16.13, 95 % CI 4.18–62.17