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Table 2 Birth outcomes of vaginal delivery (VD) versus Cesarean delivery (CD) for breech presentation, by year of delivery, at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 1999–2010 (N = 1,655)

From: Breech delivery at a University Hospital in Tanzania

   1999–2004 2005–2006 2007–2010  
Mode of delivery   n % n % n % P-value
VD
 Not referred
  Alive at discharge 580 94.0 73 90.2 92 86.8 0.007
  Stillborn 13 2.1 4 4.9 8 7.5 0.002
  In-hospital neonatal death 24 3.9 4 4.9 6 5.7 0.099
 Referred
  Alive at discharge 48 88.9 10 71.4 28 77.8 0.1999
  Stillborn 3 5.6 2 14.3 5 13.9 0.221
  In-hospital neonatal death 3 5.6 1 14.3 3 8.3 0.662
CD
 Not referred
  Alive at discharge 287 98.3 62 96.9 228 77.8 0.903
  Stillborn 1 0.3 2 3.1 3 1.3 0.371
  In-hospital neonatal death 4 1.4 0 0 1 0.4 0.300
 Referred
  Alive at discharge 52 96.3 11 78.6 88 96.7 0.595
  Stillborn 1 1.9 2 14.3 3 3.3 0.983
  Early neonatal death 1 1.9 1 7.1 0 0 0.136
All VDs
  Alive at discharge 628 93.6 83 87.4 120 84.5 0.000
  Stillborn 16 2.4 6 6.3 13 9.2 0.000
  In-hospital neonatal death 27 4.0 6 6.3 9 6.3 0.141
All CDs
  Alive at discharge 339 98.0 73 93.6 316 97.8 0.0002
  Stillborn 2 0.6 4 5.1 6 1.9 0.242
  In-hospital neonatal death 5 1.4 1 1.3 1 0.3 0.089
Total
  Alive at discharge 967 95.1 156 90.2 436 93.8 0.212
  Stillborn 18 1.8 10 5.8 19 4.1 0.008
  In-hospital neonatal death 32 3.1 7 4.0 10 2.2 0.354
  1. “Stillborn” is defined as fetuses with heart sound at admission, but no sign of vitality at birth; “in-hospital neonatal deaths” is defined as live births, with death taking place before discharge from hospital. Analyses were performed using Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for linear trends