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Table 1 Birth outcomes of vaginal delivery (VD) versus Cesarean delivery (CD) for breech presentation, at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 1999–2010 (N = 1,655)

From: Breech delivery at a University Hospital in Tanzania

     VD   CD   P-value
     n % n %  
All    Alive at discharge 831 91.5 728 97.5 <0.0001
    Stillborn 35 3.9 12 1.6 0.007
    In-hospital neonatal death 42 4.6 7 0.9 <0.0001
    Apgar score < 45 29 3.3 5 0.7 <0.0001
  Parity Primipara Alive at discharge 274 90.1 379 97.4  
    Stillborn 12 3.9 5 1.3 0.018
    In-hospital neonatal death 18 6.0 5 1.3 0.000
    Apgar score < 45 25 8.2 10 2.6 0.001
   Multipara Alive at discharge 557 92.2 349 97.5  
    Stillborn 23 2.0 7 2 0.000
    In-hospital neonatal death 24 4.0 2 0.5 0.001
    Apgar score < 45 38 8.2 7 2.0 0.009
  Birth weight 2.5–3.6 kg Alive at discharge 772 91.6 616 97.8  
    Stillborn 32 3.8 8 1.3 0.002
    In-hospital neonatal death 39 4.6 6 1.0 0.000
    Apgar score < 45 59 13.8 6 5.1 0.018
   3.7–4.7 kg Alive at discharge 59 90.8 112 95.7  
    Stillborn 3 4.6 4 3.4 0.650
    In-hospital neonatal death 3 4.6 1 0.9 0.094
    Apgar score < 45 4 6.2 9 3.4 0.001
  Referral No Alive at discharge 745 92.7 577 98.1  
    Stillborn 25 3.1 6 1.0 0.007
    In-hospital neonatal death 34 4.2 5 0.9 0.000
    Apgar score < 45 23 3.0 3 0.5 0.000
   Yes Alive at discharge 86 82.7 151 95.0  
    Stillborn 10 9.6 6 3.7 0.036
    In-hospital neonatal death 8 7.7 2 1.3 0.005
    Apgar score < 45 6 6.4 2 1.3 0.029
  Privately insured Yes Alive at discharge 12 100 91 98.9  
    Stillborn 0 1 1.1  
    Neonatal death 0 0  
    Apgar score < 45 0 0  
   No Alive at discharge 247 85.5 343 96.9  
    Stillborn 20 6.9 9 2.5 0.004
    In-hospital neonatal death 22 7.6 2 0.6 0.000
    Apgar score < 45 2 0.6 15 5.6 0.000
  1. “Stillborn” is defined as fetuses with heart sound at admission, but no sign of vitality at birth; “in-hospital neonatal deaths” is defined as live births, with death taking place before discharge from hospital; “moderate asphyxia” is defined as Apgar score <4 at 5 min. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to analyze the data