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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios or overweight and obesity among the pre-school children by Delivery Mode in 2015

From: Cesarean section may increase the risk of both overweight and obesity in preschool children

  Overweight p value Obesity p value
Unadjusted
 Vaginal delivery 1.0   1.0  
 Cesarean section 1.33 (1.15–1.54) <0.001 1.41 (1.23–1.61) <0.001
  Elective CS 1.44 (1.20–1.72) <0.001 1.34 (1.13–1.59) 0.001
  Non-elective CS 1.28 (1.09–1.49) 0.002 1.44 (1.25–1.66) <0.001
Model 1
 Vaginal delivery 1.0   1.0  
 Cesarean section 1.33 (1.15–1.53) <0.001 1.40 (1.22–1.61) <0.001
  Elective CS 1.43 (1.19–1.71) <0.001 1.32 (1.11–1.57) 0.001
  Non-elective CS 1.28 (1.09–1.49) 0.002 1.44 (1.25–1.66) <0.001
Model 2
 Vaginal delivery 1.0   1.0  
 Cesarean section 1.27 (1.09–1.47) 0.001 1.32 (1.15–1.52) <0.001
  Elective CS 1.36 (1.13–1–64) 0.001 1.27 (1.06–1.51) 0.007
  Non-elective CS 1.22 (1.04–1.43) 0.011 1.35 (1.16–1.56) <0.001
Model 3
 Vaginal delivery 1.0   1.0  
 Cesarean section 1.24 (1.07–1.44) 0.003 1.29 (1.13–1.49) <0.001
  Elective CS 1.35 (1.12–1.63) 0.001 1.25 (1.05–1.49) 0.012
  Non-elective CS 1.19 (1.01–1.40) 0.029 1.32 (1.13–1.53) <0.001
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for child factors: Gender, age, birth weight, gestational age, duration of breastfeeding
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + Adjusted for maternal factors: gestational weight gain, smoking, drinking, maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, education level
  3. Model 3: Model 1 + Model + 2 Adjusted for paternal factors and family income: age, education, smoking, drinking, BMI, family income