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Table 1 Children and parental characteristics in relation to delivery mode in 2015

From: Cesarean section may increase the risk of both overweight and obesity in preschool children

Characteristics Vaginal delivery Cesarean section p value
N (%) 2907 (32.7) 5993 (67.3)  
Maternal factors
 Maternal age
  19–24 51 (1.8) 38 (0.7) <0.001
  25–29 859 (29.5) 1501 (25.0)
  30–35 1604 (55.2) 3433 (57.3)
  36 or older 393 (13.5) 1021 (17.0)
 Maternal education
  Completed primary school 70 (2.4) 87 (1.5) <0.001
  Completed middle school 483 (16.6) 777 (13.0)
  Completed high school 652 (22.4) 1488 (24.8)
  College or above 1702 (58.6) 3641 (60.7)
 Smoking
  Never 2896 (99.6) 5948 (99.2) 0.054
  One or less cigarettes/day 6 (0.2) 10 (0.2)
  1–5 cigarettes per day 3 (0.1) 23 (0.4)
  6 or more cigarettes per day 2 (0.1) 12 (0.2)
 Drinking
  Never 2863 (98.5) 5872 (98.0) 0.240
  Occasionally 40 (1.4) 112 (1.8)
  Daily 4 (0.1) 9 (.2)
 Pre-pregnancy BMI
  Normal 2690 (92.9) 5363 (89.9) <0.001
  Overweight 193 (6.7) 572 (9.6)
  Obesity 12 (0.4) 30 (0.5)
 Gestational Weight Gain (kg), mean ± SD 14.10 ± 7.52 15.78 ± 8.07 <0.001
Child factors
 Birth weight
  Normal 2811 (98.7) 5814 (97.0) 0.420
  Low birth weight 96 (3.3) 179 (3.0)
 Gestational age
  Preterm 169 (5.8) 312 (5.2) 0.235
  Full-term 2738 (94.2) 5681 (94.8)
 Gender
  Male 1529 (52.6) 3181 (53.1) 0.670
  Female 1378 (47.4) 2812 (46.9)
 Duration of breastfeeding
  Never 587 (20.2) 1509 (25.2) <0.001
  Less than 4mo 600 (20.6) 1209 (20.2)
  4–5 mo 786 (27.1) 1493 (24.9)
  6+ 934 (32.1) 1782 (29.7)
 Child BMI (kg/m)
  Normal 2265 (77.9) 4309 (71.9) <0.001
  Overweight 293 (10.1) 745 (12.4)
  Obesity 349 (12.0) 939 (15.7)
Paternal factors
 Age
  19–24 12 (0.4) 12 (0.2) <0.001
  25–29 409 (14.1) 623 (10.4)
  30–35 1574 (54.1) 3301 (55.1)
  36 or older 912 (31.4) 2057 (34.3)
 Education level
  Completed primary school 32 (1.1) 40 (0.7) <0.05
  Completed middle school 1029 (35.4) 1957 (32.7)
  Completed high school 720 (24.8) 1648 (27.5)
  College or above 1126 (38.7) 2348 (39.1)
 Smoking
  Never 1408 (48.4) 2662 (44.4) <0.05
  One or less cigarettes/day 159 (5.5) 331 (5.5)
  1–5 cigarettes per day 528 (18.2) 1233 (20.6)
  6 or more cigarettes per day 812 (27.9) 1767 (29.5)
 Drinking
  Never 1692 (58.2) 3348 (55.9) 0.111
  Occasionally 948 (32.6) 2057 (34.3)
  Daily 267 (9.2) 588 (9.8)
 Father BMI
  Normal 1871 (65.1) 3634 (61.2) <0.05
  Overweight 898 (31.2) 2048 (34.5)
  Obesity 107 (3.7) 256 (4.3)
 Family income
  Lower income 364 (12.5) 642 (10.7) <0.05
  Middle income 2220 (76.4) 4693 (78.3)
  Higher income 323 (11.1) 658 (11.0)
  1. BMI body mass index, SD standard deviation, Mo month