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Table 4 Results

From: Benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a systematic review

Outcome measure Study Treatment group Control group Difference between groups
Specification   N Events (%) N Events (%) OR [95 % CI]; p-value
Pyelonephritis
  Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 1 (2.2) 0.37a [0.01; 9.25]a; 0.515b
  Williams [22] 85c 5 (6) 78c 18 (23) 0.21a [0.07–0.59]a; 0.002b
Lower UTI
 Treated with AB during pregnancy Kazemier [21] 40 4 (10) 45 8 (18) POR 0.53a [0.16; 1.79]a; 0.357b
 Recurrent UTI treated with AB during pregnancy Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 1 (2.2) 0.37a [0.01; 9.25]a; 0.515b
 Treated with AB postpartum (within 6 weeks) Kazemier [21] 40 3 (7.5) 45 1 (2.2) POR 3.20a [0.43; 23.63]a; 0.296b
 Pre- and post-partald Mulla [20] 50 3 (6) 50 20 (40) 0.10a [0.03–0.35]a; < 0.001b
Preterm birth
  < 37 weekse Kazemier [21] 40 2f (5) 45 2 (4.4) POR 1.13a [0.15; 8.35]a; 0.975b
  < 32 weeks Kazemier [21] 40 1 (2.5) 45 0 (0) 3.46a [0.14; 87.26]a; 0.357b
Infant morbidity
 Kernicterus Elder [19] 54 0g 52 0g n. a.
 Composite severe morbidityh Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 2 (4.4) 0.21a [0.01; 4.61]a; 0.220b
 Admission to NICU Kazemier [21] 40 2 (5) 45 0 (0) 5.91a [0.28; 126.85]a; 0.169b
 Neonatal sepsis confirmed with culture Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 2 (4.4) 0.21a [0.01; 4.61]a; 0.220b
 Congenital abnormalities Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 1 (2.2) 0.37a [0.01; 9.25]a; 0.515b
Infant mortality
 Perinatal death Kazemier [21] 40 1 (2.5) 45 0 (0) 3.46a [0.14; 87.26]a; 0.357b
Adverse events
 Vomiting Elder [19] 54 1 52 0 n. a.
 Rashes, pruritus Elder [19] 54 0f 52 0f n. a.
 Photosensitivity Elder [19] 54 0f 52 0f n. a.
 Discontinuations due to adverse events Mulla [20] 50 0 50 0 n. a.
 Pre-eclampsiae Kazemier [21] 40 2 (5) 45 1 (2.2) POR 2.24a [0.23; 22.22]a; 0.596b
 HELLP syndrome Kazemier [21] 40 2 (5) 45 0 (0) 5.91a [0.28; 126.85]a; 0.169b
 Kidney stones, cholestasis Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 0 (0) RD 0 [-9,4; 10,5]
 Thrombo-embolic events Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 0 (0) RD 0 [-9,4; 10,5]
 Endometritis (within 6 weeks of delivery) Kazemier [21] 40 0 (0) 45 0 (0) RD 0 [-9,4; 10,5]
 Mastitis (within 6 weeks of delivery) Kazemier [21] 40 1 (2.5) 45 1 (2.2) POR 1.13a [0.07; 18.41]a; 0.997b
  1. AB antibiotics, CI confidence interval, CSZ convexity, symmetry, z score, HELLP haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count syndrome, n. a not available, NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, OR odds ratio, POR Peto odds ratio, RD risk difference, UTI urinary tract infection
  2. aIQWiG’s own calculation
  3. bIQWiG’s own calculation, unconditioned exact test (CSZ method as described in [25])
  4. cNumber of participants analysed; number of randomised participants not stated
  5. dThe outcome was named either cystopyelitis or symptomatic UTI; neither term was defined. It was therefore unclear which stage of UTI the reported outcome represented. Following a conservative approach, we classified the outcome as lower UTI. However, it is possible that cases of upper UTI were also included
  6. eConsidered a non-patient-relevant outcome
  7. fOne event is also included in preterm births < 32 weeks
  8. gIt is unclear whether the reported event rate relates to both study groups; alternatively, the event rate may relate solely to the treatment group or to any pregnant participant with or without bacteriuria
  9. hRespiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular haemorrhage, bronchopulmonary disease, sepsis