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Table 3 Risk of bias of included trials

From: Benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a systematic review

Study Randomisation appropriate Allocation concealment appropriate Blinding patient / investigator / outcome assessor Selective reporting improbable Absence of other factors potentially causing bias ITT analysis appropriate Risk of bias (study level)
Elder [19] unclear unclear yes / unclear / unclear uncleara, b noc nod high
Mulla [20] unclear unclear no / no / unclear noa, e noc, f unclear high
Williams [22] unclear unclear no / no / unclear noa, g noc noh high
Kazemier [21] yes yes yes / yes / yes yes yes yes low
  1. aSample size planning, predefinition of study outcomes and their analysis not reported
  2. bThe outcome “kernicterus” was reported together with other adverse outcomes, some of which were reported for only one study group
  3. cPatient flow unclear; unclear whether information on inclusion and exclusion criteria was complete
  4. dSome participants were excluded from the analysis; information on study discontinuations was insufficient
  5. eThe outcome “preterm labour” was reported only for the control group; one outcome usually reported in association with preterm labour, preterm birth, was not reported here
  6. fThe outcome “cystopyelitis” was not defined and it was therefore unclear whether upper and / or lower UTI were included
  7. gResults of one outcome not relevant to this assessment were reported incompletely
  8. hSome participants were excluded from the analysis; the reasons were not stated