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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of significance by demographic factors, percent reporting having experienced each form of mistreatment (Chi square, * = p < =0.05)

From: Women’s status and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: a mixed methods study using cultural health capital theory

  Discrimination (%) Physical abuse (%) Verbal abuse (%) Threats to withhold treatment (%) Lack of information (%) Abandoned or ignored (%) Delivered alone (%) Choice of position denied (%) Companion not allowed (%) Requested payment or bribe(%) Unnecessary separation from baby (%) Total Mistreatment Score (mean)
Total N reporting mistreatment
  132 121 214 89 35 65 85 76 140 167 34 Range 1-10
Age 16-19 6.8 5.8 4.7 5.6 8.6 3.1 5.9 6.6 5.7 4.6 2.9 1.58
20-24 39.4 33.1 36.9 34.8 31.4 33.8 31.8 38.2 30 39.4 20.6 2.31
25-30 53.8 61.2 58.4 59.6 60 63.1 62.4 55.3 64.3 56 76.5 1.90
Chi sq           *   
Migrant Non 55.3 55.4 50.5 49.4 51.4 56.9 57.6 57.9 65 50.9 64.7 2.40
Rural to Urban 31.8 33.1 37.9 37.1 40 27.7 32.9 31.6 29.3 36.6 26.5 1.72
Urban to Urban 12.9 11.6 11.7 13.5 8.6 15.4 9.4 10.5 5.7 12.6 8.8 1.63
Chi sq          *    *
Wealth (quartile) 1 25 24 20.1 27 31.4 12.3 23.5 27.6 20.7 16.6 26.5 1.06
2 27.3 26.4 24.8 27 22.9 27.7 32.9 30.3 30.7 26.3 17.6 2.06
3 21.2 21.5 23.8 19.1 22.9 29.2 21.2 19.7 22.9 24.6 41.2 1.90
4 26.5 28.1 31.3 27 22.9 30.8 22.4 22.4 25.7 32.6 14.7 2.72
Chi sq    *       * *   *
Caste Other 6.1 6.6 7 4.5 2.9 6.2 10.6 10.5 9.3 4.6 0 1.54
SC 22 22.3 22.4 34.8 45.7 20 36.5 31.6 25.7 16.6 11.8 1.27
ST 18.2 16.5 11.7 13.5 14.3 18.5 1.2 2.6 12.9 21.1 23.5 2.97
OBC 53.8 54.5 58.9 47.2 37.1 55.4 51.8 55.3 52.1 57.7 64.7 2.55
Chi sq * * *    *     *   *
Education None 52.3 55.4 50 56.2 60 43.1 50.6 56.6 54.3 51.4 61.8 2.10
Primary 33.3 29.8 35.5 27 28.6 36.9 34.1 30.3 30.7 28.6 26.5 1.80
Secondary 14.4 14.9 14.5 16.9 11.4 20 15.3 13.2 15 20 11.8 2.26
Chi sq