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Table 4 Association between possible risk factors and DV 1–1.5 years postpartum (N = 731).a

From: Increasing prevalence and incidence of domestic violence during the pregnancy and one and a half year postpartum, as well as risk factors: -a longitudinal cohort study in Southern Sweden

   DV   
1–1.5 year postpartum P-value
Independent variable n (%) n (%) OR 95 % CIb (two-tailed)
History of violencec 241 (33.5) 23 (9.5) - <0.001
Age ≥ 35 141 (19.6) 3 (2.1) 0.6 (0.2–2.1) NS
Multiparae 376 (55.5) 11 (2.9) 0.8 (0.3–1.9) NS
Low educational status 273 (37.4) 10 (3.7) 0.8 (0.3–1.8) NS
Unemployed 51 (7.0) 4 (7.8) 2.9 (1.0–9.0) NS
Foreign language 183 (25.2) 9 (4.9) 2.0 (0.8–4.6) NS
Single/living apart 36 (4.9) 8 (22.2) 12.8 (5.0–32.7) <0.001
Financial distress 357 (49.0) 15 (4.2) 2.0 (0.8–4.7) NS
Alcohol consumptiond 481 (66.8) 13 (2.7) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) NS
Smoking/using wet tobacco 142 (19.6) 5 (3.5) 1.1 (0.4–3.1) NS
Overweight/obese 238 (32.6) 5 (2.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.4) NS
Unintended pregnancy 123 (17.1) 3 (2.4) 0.7 (0.2–2.5) NS
Miscarriage/abortion 49 (6.9) 1 (2.0) 0.6 (0.1–4.6) NS
Self-reported poor health 62 (8.8) 3 (4.8) 1.8 (0.5–6.2) NS
Lack of sleep 79 (11.2) 5 (6.3) 2.4 (0.9–6.7) NS
EPDS ≥ 13 66 (9.9) 8 (12.1) 6.2 (2.5–15.6) <0.001
SOC Low scoree 190 (27.8) 15 (7.9) 5.2 (2.2–12.5) <0.001
  1. aMissing system = 12
  2. bMethod used: bivariate logistic regression showing unadjusted univariable odds ratios and confidence intervals
  3. cAll (n = 23) reported history of violence and therefore OR with 95 % CI not showed
  4. dAt least once a month
  5. eSOC-score measured in early pregnancy