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Table 7 Rates respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) at 32–36 weeks and 37–38 weeks per 1000 live births and unadjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between pregnancy complications and obstetric interventions, and RDS at 32–36 weeks and 37–38 weeks, United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  RDS 32–36 weeks RDS 37–38 weeks
No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI] No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI]
Pregnancy complications
 Placental abruption 645 78.0 2.79 [2.57, 3.03] 102 17.9 5.43 [4.45, 6.62]
 Placenta previa 348 63.8 2.20 [1.97, 2.46] 44 9.0 2.67 [1.98, 3.59]
 Hypertension in pregnancy 1748 44.1 1.55 [1.47, 1.63] 449 6.8 2.12 [1.92, 2.34]
 Eclampsia 321 58.0 1.98 [1.77, 2.22] 43 8.9 2.66 [1.97, 3.59]
 Premature rupture of membranes 1430 46.3 1.62 [1.53, 1.71] 104 6.3 1.88 [1.55, 2.29]
Interventions
 Labour induction 1455 26.6 0.85 [0.81, 0.90] 953 3.6 1.08 [1.00, 1.16]
 Labour inductiona 697 20.7 0.80 [0.74, 0.87] 586 2.9 1.07 [0.98, 1.17]
 Cesarean delivery 6971 40.7 1.84 [1.77, 1.91] 2340 5.7 2.48 [2.34, 2.64]
 Cesarean deliverya 3826 32.8 1.64 [1.57, 1.72] 1512 4.5 2.32 [2.16, 2.49]
All live births 11,942 30.5 - 4292 3.4 -
  1. Odds ratios were estimated by contrasting outcomes among those with and those without the risk factor e.g., RDS at 37–38 weeks among infants of women delivering with placental abruption vs. infants of women without placental abruption
  2. aExcluding live births with maternal hypertension, eclampsia, diabetes mellitus, placental abruption, placenta previa and any congenital anomaly