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Table 6 Adjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between maternal and infant characteristics and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) at 32–36 weeks and 37–38 weeks, United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  Adjusted odds ratios [95 % CI]
RDS 32–36 weeks RDS 37–38 weeks
Maternal age <20 years 1.14 [1.07, 1.21] 0.86 [0.78, 0.96]
20–34 Reference Reference
≥35 0.97 [0.95, 0.98] 0.95 [0.92, 0.97]
Multi-fetal gestation 9.6 [9.2, 10.0] 3.65 [3.18, 4.20]
Smoking 1.42 [1.35, 1.50] 1.55 [1.42, 1.68]
Diabetes mellitus 2.04 [1.90, 2.18] 2.71 [2.45, 3.01]
Chronic hypertension 2.86 [2.59, 3.16] 2.74 [2.29, 3.28]
Any congenital anomaly 4.81 [4.48, 5.17] 6.22 [5.57, 6.94]
Male sex 1.41 [1.36, 1.46] 1.67 [1.57, 1.77]
  1. Odds ratios were estimated by contrasting the outcome among those with and those without the risk factor e.g., RDS 37–38 weeks among infants/fetuses at risk of smokers vs. non-smokers