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Table 3 Rates respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) at early (<32 weeks) and late (≥39 weeks) gestation per 1000 live births and unadjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between pregnancy complications and obstetric interventions, and RDS, United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  RDS <32 weeks RDS ≥39 weeks
No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI] No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI]
Pregnancy complications
 Placental abruption 836 176 1.76 [1.63, 1.90] 60 10 6.33 [4.90, 8.18]
 Placenta previa 199 153.2 1.43 [1.23, 1.67] 25 7.2 4.51 [3.04, 6.69]
 Hypertension in pregnancy 1007 154.3 1.50 [1.39, 1.61] 230 3.6 2.31 [2.02, 2.63]
 Eclampsia 287 174 1.68 [1.47, 1.91] 27 6.9 4.33 [2.96, 6.33]
 Premature rupture of membranes 1510 141.9 1.37 [1.29, 1.46] 107 4.2 2.65 [2.19, 3.21]
Interventions
 Labour induction 280 90.9 0.78 [0.68, 0.88] 1225 1.8 1.17 [1.09, 1.25]
 Cesarean delivery 5146 121.9 1.28 [1.22, 1.35] 1881 2.8 2.27 [2.13, 2.41]
 Labour inductiona 115 65.8 0.70 [0.58, 0.85] 947 1.6 1.18 [1.09, 1.27]
 Cesarean deliverya 2503 94.0 1.12 [1.05, 1.19] 1429 2.3 2.16 [2.02, 2.31]
All live births 7450 113.2 - 4287 1.6 -
  1. aExcluding live births with maternal hypertension, eclampsia, diabetes mellitus, placental abruption, placenta previa and any congenital anomaly