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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between maternal and infant characteristics and early (<32 weeks) and late (≥39 weeks) gestation respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  Adjusted odds ratios [95 % CI]
RDS <32 weeks RDS ≥39 weeks
Maternal age <20 years 1.59 [1.48, 1.71] 1.25 [1.14, 1.37]
20–34 Reference Reference
≥35 0.99 [0.97, 1.01] 0.95 [0.92, 0.98]
Multifetal gestation 11.6 [11.0, 12.2] 3.66 [2.68, 4.98]
Smoking 1.53 [1.43, 1.63] 1.44 [1.32, 1.57]
Diabetes 1.31 [1.18, 1.44] 1.74 [1.51, 2.00]
Chronic hypertension 3.89 [3.49, 4.35] 1.65 [1.25, 2.20]
Any congenital anomaly 9.41 [8.79, 10.1] 7.25 [6.50, 8.09]
Male sex 1.09 [1.04, 1.14] 1.45 [1.36, 1.54]
  1. Odds ratios were estimated by contrasting the outcome among those with and those without the risk factor e.g., RDS < 32 weeks among infants of smokers vs non-smokers