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Table 10 Sensitivity analysis including stillbirths: Adjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between early antepartum characteristics and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  Adjusted odds ratios [95 % CI]
RDS <32 weeks RDS 32–36 weeks RDS 37–38 weeks RDS ≥39 weeks
Maternal age <20 years 1.59 [1.48, 1.71] 1.14 [1.07, 1.21] 0.86 [0.78, 0.96] 1.25 [1.14, 1.37]
20–34 Reference Reference Reference Reference
≥35 0.99 [0.97, 1.01] 0.97 [0.95, 0.98] 0.95 [0.92, 0.97] 0.95 [0.92, 0.98]
Multifetal gestation 11.6 [11.0, 12.2] 9.61 [9.20, 10.0] 3.65 [3.18, 4.20] 3.66 [2.68, 4.98]
Smoking 1.53 [1.43, 1.63] 1.42 [1.35, 1.50] 1.55 [1.42, 1.68] 1.44 [1.32, 1.57]
Diabetes 1.31 [1.18, 1.44] 2.04 [1.90, 2.18] 2.71 [2.45, 3.01] 1.74 [1.51, 2.00]
Chronic hypertension 3.89 [3.49, 4.35] 2.86 [2.59, 3.16] 2.74 [2.29, 3.28] 1.65 [1.25, 2.20]
Any congenital anomaly 9.4 [8.79, 10.1] 4.81 [4.48, 5.17] 6.22 [5.57, 6.94] 7.25 [6.50, 8.09]
Male sex 1.09 [1.04, 1.14] 1.41 [1.36, 1.46] 1.67 [1.57, 1.77] 1.45 [1.36, 1.54]