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Table 3 Determinants of dropout from maternity care continuum in Nigeria

From: Patterns and determinants of dropout from maternity care continuum in Nigeria

Variables Model 1:No ANC Model II: Had ANC but No delivery care Model III: delivery care but No PNC
Problems in accessing healthcare OR (95 % CI)a OR (95 % CI)a OR (95 % CI)a
 Getting permission to go 1.74 (1.51-2.02)* 0.84 (0.67-1.05) 1.14 (0.88-1.47)
 Getting money 1.19 (1.08-1.31)* 1.18 (1.04-1.34)* 1.18 (1.04-1.35)*
 Distance to health facility 1.22 (1.09-1.36)* 1.31 (1.13-1.52)* 1.32 (1.12-1.57)*
 Can't go alone 1.37 (1.19-1.58)* 1.07 (0.86-1.33) 1.16 (0.89-1.48)
 Attitude of health workers 0.95 (0.84-1.09) 0.83 (0.69-0.99) 1.14 (0.95-1.38)
Maternal age at child birth (yrs)
  < 18 1.00 1.00 1.00
 18 - 34 1.25 (0.99-1.58) 1.28 (0.93-1.75) 1.10 (0.76-1.59)
  > = 35 1.01 (0.90-1.13) 1.28 (1.11-1.48)* 1.09 (0.94-1.26)
Birth order
 1 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2 1.15 (0.99-1.35) 1.67 (1.39-2.02)* 0.97 (0.82-1.15)
 3 1.25 (1.06-1.47)* 4.22 (3.05-5.83)* 1.01 (0.84-1.20)
 4+ 1.36 (1.18-1.58)* 2.84 (2.08-3.86)* 1.17 (0.97-1.39)
Highest Education attained
 None 5.98 (4.11-8.72)* 5.19 (3.71-7.25)* 1.78 (1.37-2.32)*
 Primary 3.66 (2.53-5.30)* 4.22 (3.05-5.83)* 1.29 (1.04-1.62)*
 Secondary 2.28 (1.59-3.26)* 2.84 (2.08-3.86)* 1.17 (0.97-1.39)
 Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Occupation
 Not working 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Professional/technical/managerial/services 0.73 (0.59-0.90)* 0.91 (0.73-1.44) 0.87 (0.73-1.04)
 Sales/clerical 0.71 (0.64-0.80)* 0.96 (0.83-1.11) 0.79 (0.68-0.92)*
 Manual 0.75 (0.67-0.85)* 1.07 (0.91-1.25) 0.93 (0.78-1.11)
Wealth index
 Poor 2.57 (2.17-3.05)* 2.22 (1.85-2.67)* 1.65 (1.32-2.07)*
 Middle 1.59 (1.37-1.84)* 1.61 (1.38-1.87)* 1.15 (0.98-1.36)
 Rich 1.00 1.00 1.00
Partners’ education
 None 2.30 (1.91-2.77)* 1.86 (1.52-2.27)* 1.14 (0.90-1.45)
 Primary 1.50 (1.24-1.81)* 1.56 (1.29-1.89)* 1.12 (0.93-1.35)
 Secondary 1.48 (1.24-1.76)* 1.30 (1.10-1.53)* 1.07 (0.92-1.24)
 Higher 1.00   1.00
Decision making on own health
 Yes 0.98 (0.86-1.12) 0.88 (0.75-1.03) 0.94 (0.81-1.09)
Decision making on visit to friends/relatives
 Yes 0.94 (0.83-1.06) 0.91 (0.77-1.06) 1.03 (0.88-1.19)
Residence
 Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Rural 2.58 (2.05-3.25)* 1.98 (1.63-2.41)* 1.12 (0.92-1.37)
Region
 North Central 1.38 (0.96-1.99) 2.79 (2.07-3.77) 1.54 (1.16-2.04)*
 North East 1.97 (1.35-2.88)* 8.49 (6.12-11.79)* 1.26 (0.89-1.77)
 North West 3.64 (2.54-5.23)* 15.11 (10.97-20.82)* 1.84 (1.31-2.60)*
 South East 0.57 (0.37-0.87)* 0.66 (0.46-0.95)* 3.12 (2.32-4.20)*
 South South 3.62 (2.51-5.24)* 3.41 (2.49-4.67)* 1.89 (1.40-2.55)*
 South West 1.00 1.00 1.00
Random effects: community level
 Variance (SE) 1.2125 (0.0452)* 0.9014 (0.0473)* 0.9873 (0.0469)
 ICC (%) 30.89 % 19.81 % 22.86 %
  1. *p < 0.05 (p-values based on Wald test); aOdds Ratio adjusted for all other variables in the table