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Table 5 Outcomes in PRISON and PRISON+ groups

From: Perinatal health care services for imprisoned pregnant women and associated outcomes: a systematic review

Outcome Studies in PRISON category Studies in PRISON+ category All studies
Number of studies measuring outcome Outcome (n/N) Summary percentage (95 % CI)a Number of studies measuring outcome Outcome (n/N) Summary percentage (95 % CI)a Total number of studies measuring outcome Overall summary percentage (95 % CI)a
Low birthweight 5 36/333 9 · 3 (6 · 2–12 · 4) 0 N/A N/A 5 9 · 3 (6 · 2–12 · 4)
Caesareanb 3 37/137 26 · 5 (12 · 7–40 · 3)b 3 56/396 12 · 9 (8 · 3–17 · 6)b 6 N/A
Stillbirth 3 6/313 1 · 8 (0 · 3–3 · 3) 1 1/237 0 · 4 (0 · 0–1 · 2) 4 0 · 8 (0 · 0–1 · 5)
Neonatal unit admission 3 34/263 12 · 7 (8 · 7–16 · 8) 1 24/236 10 · 2 (6 · 3–14 · 0) 4 11 · 4 (8 · 6–14 · 2)
Inadequate prenatal careb 2 166/540 30 · 7 (26 · 8–34 · 6)b 1 34/221 15 · 4 (10 · 6–20 · 1)b 3 N/A
Preterm deliveryb 2 24/119 19 · 0 (9 · 5–28 · 6)b 1 15/236 6 · 4 (3 · 2–9 · 5)b 3 N/A
Neonatal death 2 5/196 2 · 2 (0 · 1–4 · 2) 0 N/A N/A 2 2 · 2 (0 · 1–4 · 2)
Small for gestational age 2 9/43, 0/34 N/Ac 1 28/236 11 · 9 (7 · 7–16 · 0) 3 N/A
APGAR < 7 at 5 mins 2 5/76, 0/34 N/Ac 1 0/236 0 3 N/A
Breastfeeding 2 1/34, 21/43 N/Ad 1 3/5 60 · 0 (17 · 1–100) 3 N/A
  1. aSummary measures created by taking results from individual studies, weighting by sample size and calculating summary statistic. Only presented if there is no significant heterogeneity between groups
  2. bThere is evidence of significant heterogeneity between PRISON and PRISON+ groups (p = 0 · 005 for caesarean, p < 0 · 001 for inadequate prenatal care, p = 0 · 001 for preterm delivery), therefore a random effects model has been used
  3. cNo summary measure possible as only one non-zero result
  4. dNo summary measure possible as significant heterogeneity in results within PRISON category