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Table 5 Crude incidence, odds ratio, population attributable risk and population attributable fraction of preeclampsia and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the population studied after excluding subjects with spontaneous abortions

From: The impact of unrecognized autoimmune rheumatic diseases on the incidence of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction: a longitudinal cohort study

Preeclampsia Crude incidence (%) 95 % CI Odds ratio (95 % CI) PAR (%) 95 % CI PAF (95 % CI)
Controls/overall incidence* (n = 594) 3.2 (1.9–5) Reference 6.5 (5.1–8.1)*  
Major rheumatic diseases (n = 67) 26.9 (16.8–39.1) 9.2 (4.3–19.5) 1.4 (0.6–2.1) 0.22 (0.09–0.33)
UCTD (n = 131) 13.7 (8.4–20.8) 4.6 (2.3–9.2) 1.4 (0.6–2.1) 0.21 (0.1–0.31)
Overall rheumatic diseases (n = 198) 16.7 (11.8–22.6) 6 (3.3–10.9) 2.8 (1.7–3.9) 0.43 (0.26–0.56)
No criteria for diagnosis (n = 150) 6 (2.8–11.1) 2 (0.9–4.6) 0.05 (−0.01–1.1) 0.07 (−0.03–0.17)
Fetal growth restriction (FGR)
 Controls/overall incidence* 4.2 (2.8–6.1) Reference 8.8 (7.2–10.8)*  
 Major rheumatic diseases 26.9 (16.8–39.1) 8.8 (4.4–17.3) 1.6 (0.9–2.4) 0.18 (0.1–0.26)
 UCTD 16 (10.2–23.5) 4.1 (2.2–7.8) 1.5 (0.06–2.4) 0.17 (0.07–0.26)
 Overall rheumatic diseases 19.7 (14.4–25.9) 5.5 (3.2–9.5) 3.1 (1.9–4.3) 0.36 (0.22–0.47)
 No criteria for diagnosis 13.4 (8.4–20) 3.6 (1.9–6.7) 1.4 (0.05–2.3) 0.16 (0.06–0.26)
Preeclampsia or FGR
 Controls/overall incidence* 6.1 (4.3–8.3) Reference 11.5 (9.6–13.5)*  
 Major rheumatic diseases 29.9 (19.3–42.3) 6.8 (3.6–12.9) 1.7 (0.09–2.5) 0.15 (0.08–0.21)
 UCTD 22.9 (16–31.1) 4.4 (2.5–7.5) 2.2 (1.1–3.2) 0.19 (0.1–0.27)
 Overall rheumatic diseases 25.3 (19.4–31.9) 5.1 (3.2–8.3) 3.9 (2.6–9.6) 0.34 (0.22–0.44)
 No criteria for diagnosis 14.8 (9.5–21.5) 2.7 (1.5–4.8) 1.4 (0.4–2.3) 0.1 (0.04–0.2)
  1. UCTD undifferentiated connective tissue disease
  2. Odds ratios (OR), population attributable risk (PAR) and population attributable fraction obtained by logistic regression analysis containing preeclampsia and/or FGR as outcomes and category of rheumatic disorders (controls, major rheumatic diseases, UCTD, no criteria for diagnosis), nulliparity (yes, no), first trimester smoking (yes, no), chronic hypertension (yes, no) and previous low birthweight (<2500 g) infant (yes, no) as explanatory variables. The analysis was carried out in 941 viable pregnancies
  3. *Overall incidence