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Table 1 Characteristics of studies and populations

From: Institutional delivery in public and private sectors in South Asia: a comparative analysis of prospective data from four demographic surveillance sites

Study (Country) Bangladesh rural [32] Nepal rural [33] India rural [34] India urban [35]
Location Bogra, Maulvibazaar Faridpur districts Dhanusha district, southern Nepal Keonjhar, West Singhbhum, Saraikela districts, Jharkhand and Odisha Mumbai informal settlements
Period 2005–2011 2008–2011 2005–2008 2006–2009
Estimated population 532 900 240 000 114 000 283 000
Cluster characteristics Villages making up a union Village Development Committees 8–10 villages with residents classified as Scheduled Tribe or Other Backward Class Settlements in 6 municipal wards
Method of cluster identification Purposive sampling of three districts and clusters within districts Random selection of 60 clusters from a list of 79 Purposive sampling of three districts and clusters within districts Random selection of 48 clusters from a list of 92.
Clusters 9 30 18 24
Cluster retention individual retention All clusters followed up
Phase 1 interviews completed after 82 % of identified births
Phase 2 after 99 % of identified births
All clusters followed up All clusters followed up
Interviews completed after 98 % of identified births
All clusters followed up
Interviews completed after 83 % of identified births
Health facilities available in control areas Public facilities: District Hospitals, Maternal and Child Welfare Centres, Upazilla Health Complexes.
Private facilities: small-to-medium-size clinics, BRAC (NGO) facilities where deliveries do not take place, larger private hospitals with and without comprehensive emergency obstetric care.
Public facilities: five Primary Health Care Centres, ten Health Posts and 88 Sub-Health Posts, none equipped for emergency obstetric care. Refer to public Zonal Tertiary Hospital and private providers for emergency obstetric care. Public facilities: District Hospitals, Primary Health Centres in which deliveries can notionally take place but that are not usually equipped for comprehensive emergency obstetric care, Community Health Centres acting as referral centres for emergency obstetric care; district hospitals.
Private and charitable facilities: medium-sized missionary hospitals with emergency obstetric care.
Public facilities: Municipal tertiary hospitals, general hospitals, maternity homes.
Private facilities: specialty hospitals, general hospitals, maternity homes.