Skip to main content

Table 7 Biological markers of nutritional status in individual studies compared to reference values

From: Nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of studies in developed countries

  Study ID First Trimester Second Trimester Third Trimester Delivery
   N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval
Haemoglobin (g/L) a Baker (2009) 404 ↑122 121, 123     362 ↓108 107, 109    
Chang (2003) 445 ↑121 121, 122 319 ↑112 112, 114 836 ↓107 107, 109    
Dawson (2000) a     21 ↑124 123, 125 21 ↑115 114, 116 20 ↑114 111, 112
Dawson (2000) b     20 ↑125 124, 126 20 ↑119 118, 120 21 ↑116 112, 114
Dawson (2000) a        21 ↑114 113, 115    
Dawson (2000) b        20 ↑120 119, 121    
Gadowsky (1995)        50 ↑119 115, 123    
Iannotti (2005)     35 ↔111 107, 115 70 ↔107 104, 110    
McGuire Davies (2010)     78 ↑118 118, 118 76 ↓107 107, 108    
Meier (2002) a     20 ↑125 122, 129 15 ↑123 119, 128    
Meier (2002) b     17 ↑128 124, 132 16 ↑117 112, 123    
Meier (2002) a     19 ↑116 112, 120       
Meier (2002) b     16 ↑113 110, 116       
Rycel (2009)           102 ↑120 120, 229
Rycel (2009)           102 ↓103 103, 103
Young (2010)     48 ↑113      62 ↑117 113, 121
Ferritin (μg/L or ng/ml) b Gadowsky (1995)     50 ↓7.4 5.7, 9.1       
Iannotti (2005)     44 ↑33 26.8, 40.6 59 ↔15 12.6, 17.8    
Meier (2002) a     19 ↑42 31.3, 52.8 15 ↔25 14.6, 35.4    
Meier (2002) b     17 ↑57 36.5, 77.5 15 ↓6.8 5.2, 8.5    
Meier (2002) a     19 ↑46 24, 68.8       
Meier (2002) b     16 ↓10 7.9, 13       
Young (2010)     81 ↔16 12.9, 20.1     88 ↔17 14.9, 20.3
Haematocrit (g/L) c Chang (2003) 445 ↑36 35.7, 36.3 319 ↔33 32.7, 33.3 836 ↓32 31.8, 32.2    
Gadowsky (1995)        50 ↑36 34.8, 37.2    
Iannotti (2005)     35 ↔33 32, 34 70 ↓32 31.3, 32.7    
Rycel (2009)           102 34 34.6, 34.8
Rycel (2009)           102 ↓31 31.4, 31.6
Zinc μmol/L-1 d Castillo-Duran (2001) a 249 ↑11.9 11.7, 12.1     249 ↑10.9 10.7, 11.1    
Castillo-Duran (2001) b 258 ↑11.7 11.5, 11.9     258 ↑10.9 10.7, 11.1    
Castillo-Duran (2001) a        249 ↑10.5 10.3, 10.7    
Castillo-Duran (2001) b        258 ↑10.2 10, 10.4    
Chan (2006)           23 ↑26.3 23.2, 29.4
Mistry (2014) a        107 ↑9.71 8.8, 10.5    
Mistry (2014) b        19 ↑10.8 7.8, 13.9    
Magnesium mmol/l e Chan (2006)           23 ↑0.99 0.9, 1.1
Phosphorous mg/dl f Chan (2006)           23 ↑5 4, 6
Copper μg/dl g Mistry (2014) a        107 ↑206 1991, 2128    
Mistry (2014) b        19 ↑196 1712, 2207    
Selenium μg/L h Dawson (2000) a     21 ↓49 46, 52 21 ↓55 52.9, 57.1 21 ↑114 108.9, 119.1
Dawson (2000) b     20 ↓44 39.6, 48.4 20 ↓53 50.8, 55.2 20 ↓55 50.2, 59.8
Dawson (2000) a     21 ↓50 46.2, 53.8 21 ↔85 76.9, 93.1    
Dawson (2000) b     20 ↓44 39.6, 48.4 20 ↓62 57.2, 66.8    
Mistry (2014) a        107 ↓65 62.7, 67.5    
Mistry (2014) b        19 ↓49 45.9, 52.9    
Red blood cell folate (nmol/l) i Baker (2009)        266 ↑647 616, 680    
Serum folate (nmol/l) j Baker (2009)        291 ↑12 12, 14    
Chan (2006)           23 ↔13 10, 17
Vitamin A (μg/dL) Chan (2006)           23 ↑38 31, 45
B12 (pmol/l) k Baker (2009)        293 ↑177 169, 185    
Chan (2006)           23 ↑265 216, 315
Gadowsky (1995)        50 ↑170 146, 194    
Homocysteine (μmol/L) l Baker (2009)        293 7.9 7.6, 8.2    
Gadowsky (1995)        50 6.1 3, 9    
25OHD (nmol/L) m Baker (2009)        263 ↑33 30.4, 35.8    
Chan (2006)           23 ↑57 48, 67
Ginde (2010)             
McGuire Davies (2010)     44 ↑52 46, 58 36 ↑56 50, 63    
O’Brien (2003)        23 ↑50 41, 60    
Young (2012)           171 ↑54 51, 59
  1. a Target value 110 g/L, b Target value 15 μg/L, c Target value33 g/L, d Target value 6.12 μmol/L-1, e Target value 0.9 mmol/L, f Target value 2.5 mg/dl, g Target value 63.7 μg/dl, h Target value 90 μg/L, i Target value 340 nmol/L, j Target value 20 μg/dl, k Target value 150pmol/L, l Target value less than 13 μmol/L, m Target value 25 nmol/L, ↑ Study mean higher than reference value (p < 0.05), ↔ Study mean not different to reference value (p < 0.05), ↓ Study mean lower than reference value (p < 0.05)