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Table 6 Intake of micronutrients in individual studies compared to UK and US dietary reference values - vitamins

From: Nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of studies in developed countries

   Comparison to UK Dietary Reference Value Comparison to US Dietary Reference Value
Nutrient Study Second Trimester Third Trimester Mean over pregnancy Second Trimester Third Trimester Mean over pregnancy
N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval
Vitamin D μg/day a Baker (2009)     290 ↓2.1 2, 2.3        290 ↓2.1 2, 2.3    
Chan (2006) 23 ↓2.8 1.9, 3.7 23 ↓3.1 2.2, 4     23 ↓2.8 1.9, 3.7 23 ↓3.1 2.2, 4    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↓2.0 1.5, 2.6        20 ↓2.0 1.5, 2.6    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↓6.4 5.7, 7.1        59 ↓6.4 5.7, 7.1
Lee (2013)     133 ↓5.4 4.7, 6.1 156 ↓5.1 4.6, 5.6     133 ↓5.4 4.7, 6.1 156 ↓5.1 4.6, 5.6
Vitamin E b Baker (2009)              290 ↓8.9 8.3, 9.5    
Derbyshire (2009)              20 ↓7.7 6.5, 8.9    
Gutierrez (1999)           46 ↓10.7 10.7 46 ↓11.2 8.2, 14.1    
Lee (2013)              133 ↓6.9 6.2, 7.6 156 ↓6.9 6.4, 7.4
Pobocik (2003)                 434 ↓8 7.2, 8.8
Vitamin C c Baker (2009)     290 ↑160 146, 174        290 ↑160 146, 174    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↑138 111, 165        20 ↑138 111, 165    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑128 112, 144        59 ↑128 112, 144
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↑252 208, 296 46 ↑231 190, 271     46 ↑252 208, 296 46 ↑231 190, 271    
Job (1995)        70 ↑135 92, 178        70 ↑135 92, 178
Lee (2013)     133 ↑97 81, 113 156 ↑106 94, 118     133 ↑97 81, 113 156 ↑106 94, 118
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑167 150, 184        434 ↑167 150, 184
Folate d Baker (2009)     290 ↔285 269, 301        290 ↓285 269, 301    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↓227 205, 249        20 ↓227 205, 249    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↔312 277, 347        59 ↓312 277, 347
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↑447 355, 540 46 ↑393 340, 445     46 ↓447 355, 540 46 ↓393 340, 445    
Lee (2013)     133 ↑829 723, 935 156 ↑849 645, 1053     133 ↑829 723, 935 156 ↑849 645, 1053
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↔292 269, 315        434 ↓292 269, 315
Riboflavin e Chan (2006) 23 ↑2.3 1.8, 2.8 23 ↑2.4 2, 2.8     23 ↑2.3 1.8, 2.8 23 ↑2.4 2, 2.8    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑2.3         59 ↑2.3 2.1, 2.5
Lee (2013)     133 ↑2.5 2.3, 2.7 156 ↑2.4      133 ↑2.5 2.3, 2.7 156 ↑2.4 2.2, 2.6
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑2.1         434 ↑2.1 2, 2.2
B12 f Baker (2009)     290 ↑5.3 4.7, 5.9        290 ↑5.3 4.7, 5.9    
Chan (2006) 23 ↑5 3.8, 6.2 23 ↑5.2 3.7, 6.7     23 ↑5 3.8, 6.2 23 ↑5.2 3.7, 6.7    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑5.3 4.6, 6        59 ↑5.3 4.6, 6
Lee (2013)     133 ↑5.6 5, 6.2 156 ↑5.5 5, 6     133 ↑5.6 5, 6.2 156 ↑5.5 5, 6
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑5.5 4.8, 6.2        434 ↑5.5 4.8, 6.2
Thiamin g Baker (2009)     290 ↑1.6 1.5, 1.7        290 ↑1.6 1.5, 1.7    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3        59 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3
Lee (2013)     133 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3 156 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3     133 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3 156 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3
Pobocik (2003)        434 2.4 2.3, 2.5        434 2.4 2.3, 2.5
Niacin h Baker (2009)     290 ↑33 32, 35        290 ↑34 32, 35    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑24 22, 26        59 ↑24 22, 26
Lee (2013)     133 ↑28 26, 30 156 ↑26 24, 27     133 ↑28 26, 30 156 ↑26 24, 27
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑30 29, 31        434 ↑30 29, 31
B6 i Baker (2009)     290 ↑2.3 2.1, 2.4        290 ↑2.3 2.1, 2.4    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑1.9 1.7, 2.1        59 ↑1.9 1.7, 2.1
Lee (2013)     133 ↑2.2 2, 2.4 156 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3     133 ↑2.2 2, 2.4 156 ↑2.1 1.9, 2.3
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑2 1.9, 2.1        434 ↑2 1.9, 2.1
Vitamin A j Baker (2009)     290 ↑759 651, 867        290 ↑759 651, 867    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↑555 439, 671        20 ↓555 439, 671    
Giddens (2000)      ↑105   59 ↑1053 907, 1199      ↑1053   59 ↑1053 907, 1199
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↑2492 1466, 3518 46 ↑197 1432, 2523     46 ↑2492 1466, 3518 46 ↑1978 1432, 2523    
Job (1995)        70 ↑973 802, 1144        70 ↑973 802, 1144
Lee (2013)     133 ↑698 614, 783 156 ↑666 615, 717     133 ↑698 614, 783 156 ↓666 615, 717
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑109 944, 1242        434 ↑1093 944, 1242
Vitamin K k Lee (2013)              133 ↔70 57, 83 156 ↔70 59, 81
  1. a Comparison to UK RNI 10 μg/day and US RDA 15 μg/day, b Comparison to US RDA 15 mg/day, c Comparison to UK RNI 40 mg/day and US RDA 80 mg/day, d Comparison to UK RNI 200 μg/day and US RDA 600 μg/day, e Comparison to UK RNI 1.1 mg/day and US RDA 1.4 mg/day, f Comparison to UK RNI 1.5 μg/day and US RDA 2.6 μg/day, g Comparison to UK RNI 0.8 mg/day and US RDA 1.4 mg/day, h Comparison to UK RNI 14 mg/day and US RDA 18 mg/day, i Comparison to UK RNI 1.2 mg/day and US RDA 1.9 mg/day, j Comparison to UK RNI 600 μg/day and US RDA 750 μg/day, k Comparison to US AI 75 μg/day, ↑ Study mean higher than reference value (p < 0.05), ↔ Study mean not different to reference value (p < 0.05), ↓ Study mean lower than reference value (p < 0.05)