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Table 5 Intake of micronutrients in individual studies compared to UK and US dietary reference values - minerals

From: Nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of studies in developed countries

   Comparison to UK Dietary Reference Value Comparison to US Dietary Reference Value
Nutrient Study Second Trimester Third Trimester Mean over pregnancy Second Trimester Third Trimester Mean over pregnancy
N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval
Calcium mg/day a Baker (2009)     290 ↔840 800, 880        290 ↓840 800, 880    
Chan (2006) 23 ↔835 711, 959 23 ↔862 714, 1010     23 ↓835 711, 959 24 ↓862 714, 1010    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↑1007 867, 1147        20 ↓1007 867, 1147    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑989 904, 1074        59 ↓989 904, 1074
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↑1561 1334, 1789 46 ↑1655 1424, 1886     46 ↑1561 1334, 1789 46 ↑1655 1424, 1886    
Job (1995)        70 ↔923 756, 1090        70 ↓923 756, 1090
Lee (2013)     133 ↑916 838, 995 156 ↑886 824, 948     133 ↓916 838, 995 156 ↓886 824, 948
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↓743 689, 797        434 ↓743 689, 797
Phosphorous mg/day b Chan (2006) 23 ↑934 811, 1057 23 ↑961 812, 1110     23 ↓934 811, 1057 24 ↓961 812, 1110    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑1340 1248, 1432        59 ↔1340 1248, 1432
Lee (2013)     133 ↑1264 1182, 1347 156 ↑1196 1131, 1261     133 ↔1264 1182, 1347 156 ↔1196 1131, 1261
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑1338 1279, 1397        434 ↑1338 1279, 1397
Iron mg/day c Baker (2009)     290 ↑17 15, 19        290 ↓17 15, 19    
Castillo-Duran (2001) a 249 ↑15.5 15, 16 249 ↑16.8 16, 17     249 ↓15.5 15, 16 249 ↓16.8 16, 17    
Castillo-Duran (2001) b 258 ↑16.6 16, 17 258 ↑16.8 16, 17     258 ↓16.6 16, 17 258 ↓16.8 16, 17    
Chan (2006) 23 ↑22 18, 26 23 ↑25 20, 30     23 ↓22 18, 26 23 ↔25 20, 30    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↓12.6 11, 14        20 ↔12.6 11, 14    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↔16 15, 17        59 ↓16 15, 17
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↑17.7 15, 20 46 ↑22.7 17, 28     46 ↓17.7 15, 20 46 ↔22.7 17, 28    
Job (1995)        70 ↓11.2 10, 12        70 ↓11.2 10, 12
Lee (2013)     133 ↑18.8 17, 20 156 ↑18.6 17, 20     133 ↓18.8 17, 20 156 ↓18.6 17, 20
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑20 19, 21        434 ↓20 19, 21
Magnesium mg/day d Baker (2009)     290 ↓236 227, 245         ↓236 227, 245    
Chan (2006) 23 ↓263 230, 296 23 ↓264 231, 297      ↓263 230, 296   ↓264 231, 297    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↓244 218, 270         ↓244 218, 270    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↓252 234, 270         ↓252 234, 270
Lee (2013)     133 ↓237 222, 253 156 ↓231 218, 244      ↓237 222, 253   ↓231 218, 244
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↓270 258, 282         ↓270 258, 282
Potassium mg/day e Chan (2006) 23 ↓2802 2512, 3092 23 ↓2954 2635, 3273     23 ↓2802 2512, 3092 23 ↓2954 2635, 3273    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↓2948 2659, 3237        20 ↓2948 2659, 3237    
Zinc mg/day f Baker (2009)     290 ↑8.1 7.8, 8.4        290 ↓8.1 7.8, 8.4    
Castillo-Duran (2001) a 249 ↑7.4 7.1, 7.7 249 ↑7.7 7.4, 8     249 ↓7.4 7.1, 7.7 249 ↓7.7 7.4, 8    
Castillo-Duran (2001) b 258 ↑7.4 7.1, 7.7 258 ↑7.4 7.2, 7.6     258 ↓7.4 7.1, 7.7 258 ↓7.4 7.2, 7.6    
Chan (2006) 23 ↑16 11.9, 20.1 23 ↑18 13.5, 22.5     23 ↔16 11.9, 20.1 23 ↑18 13.5, 22.5    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↑8.1 7.4, 8.9        20   7.4, 8.9    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑11.6 10.5, 12.7        59 ↑11.6 10.5, 12.7
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↑14.5 12.6, 16.4 46 ↑15.3 13.4, 17.2     46 ↑14.5 12.6, 16.4 46 ↑15.3 13.4, 17.2    
Job (1995)        70 ↑9.5 8.5, 10.5        70 ↑9.5 8.5, 10.5
Lee (2013)     133 ↑12.8   156 ↑12.6 11.4, 13.8     133 ↑12.8   156 ↑12.6 11.4, 13.8
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑13 12.2, 13.8        434 ↑13 12.2, 13.8
Sodium mg/day g Chan (2006) 23 ↑3316 2809, 3823 23 ↑3323 2812, 3834      ↑3316 2809, 3823   ↑3323 2812, 3834    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↑3089 2722, 3456         ↑3089 2722, 3456    
Copper μg/day h Giddens (2000)        59 ↑1200 1098, 1302        59 ↑1200 1098, 1302
Lee (2013)     133 ↑1100 1015, 1185 156 ↑1085 1021, 1151     133 ↑1100 1015, 1185 156 ↑1085 1021, 1151
Selenium μg/day i Giddens (2000)        59 ↑116 109, 123        59 ↑116 109, 123
  1. aComparison to UK RNI 800 mg/day and US RDA 1300 mg/day, bComparison to UK RNI 625 mg/day and US RDA 1250 mg/day, cComparison to UK RNI 14.8 mg/day and US RDA 27 mg/day, dComparison to UK RNI 300 mg/day and US RDA 400 mg/day, eComparison to UK RNI 3500 mg/day and US RDA 4700 mg/day, fComparison to UK RNI 7 mg/day and US RDA 12 mg/day, gComparison to UK RNI 1500 mg/day and US RDA 1600 mg/day, hComparison to UK RNI 1000 μg/day and US RDA 1000 μg/day, iComparison to UK RNI 60 μg/day and US RDA 60 μg/day, ↑ Study mean higher than reference value (p < 0.05), ↔ Study mean not different to reference value (p < 0.05), ↓ Study mean lower than reference value (p < 0.05)