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Table 4 Mean intakes of macronutrients (g/day or percent of energy) and dietary fibre (g/day) in individual studies compared to UK and US dietary reference values

From: Nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of studies in developed countries

   Comparison to UK Dietary Reference Value Comparison to US Dietary Reference Value
Nutrient Study Second Trimester Third Trimester Mean over pregnancy Second Trimester Third Trimester Mean over pregnancy
N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval
Protein grams/day a Castillo-Duran (2001) a 249 ↑60 58, 62 249 ↑62 59, 64     249 ↓60 58, 62 249 ↓62 59, 64    
Castillo-Duran (2001) b 258 ↑59 57, 61 258 ↑60 58, 61     258 ↓59 57, 61 258 ↓60 58, 61    
Chan (2006) 23 ↑76 65, 87 23 ↑76 65, 87     23 ↔76 65, 87 23 ↔76 65, 87    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↑72 65, 79        20 ↔72 65, 79    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↑82 77, 87        59 ↑82 77, 87
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↑111 98, 124 46 ↑118 105, 130     46 ↑111 98, 124 46 ↑118 105, 130    
Job (1995)        70 ↑73 73, 73        70 ↑73 73, 73
Lee (2013)     133 ↑81 76, 87 156 ↑70 65, 75     133 ↑81 76, 87 156 ↔70 65, 75
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑99 95, 103        434 ↑99 95, 103
Englyst Fibre grams/day b Derbyshire (2009)      ↓12 11, 13             
AOAC Fibre grams/day c Giddens (2000)                 59 ↓14 13, 15
Lee (2013)              133 ↓13 12, 14 156 ↓14 13,14
   N= % of Energy   N= % of Energy   N= % of Energy           
Total Carbohydrate Derbyshire (2009)     20 54 %              
Giddens (2000)        59 50 %           
Lee (2013)     133 51 %   156 52 %           
Gutierrez (1999) 46 56 %   46 56 %              
Total Fat Chan (2006) 23 29 %   23 29 %              
Gutierrez (1999) 46 29 %   46 27 %              
Saturated Fat Chan (2006) 23 9 %   23 10 %              
Total Sugars Derbyshire (2009)     20 25 %              
Added Sugars Lee (2013)     133 17 %   156 17 %           
  1. a Comparison to UK RNI 51 g/day and US RDA 71 g/day, b Comparison to UK RNI 18 g/day, c Comparison to US RDA 28 g/day, ↑ Study mean higher than reference value (p < 0.05), ↔ Study mean not different to reference value (p < 0.05), ↓ Study mean lower than reference value (p < 0.05)