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Table 3 Mean energy intake in individual studies compared to UK estimated average requirement

From: Nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of studies in developed countries

  Study Second Trimester Third Trimester Mean over pregnancy
N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval N= Mean Confidence Interval
Energy kcal/day a Baker (2009)     290 ↓2147 2075, 2219    
Castillo-Duran (2001) a 249 ↓1887 1825, 1949 249 ↓2030 1968, 2092    
Castillo-Duran (2001) b 258 ↓1863 1790, 1936 258 ↓1982 1927, 2038    
Chan (2006) 23 ↔2223 2057, 2389 23 ↓2276 2059, 2493    
Derbyshire (2009)     20 ↓2273 2052, 2494    
Giddens (2000)        59 ↓2342 2187, 2497
Gutierrez (1999) 46 ↔2390 2150, 2630 46 ↔2620 2389, 2851    
Job (1995)        70 ↓2134 1949, 2320
Lee (2013)     133 ↓2303 2161, 2446 156 ↔2273 2167, 2379
Pobocik (2003)        434 ↑2487 2388, 2586
  1. aComparison to UK EARs, First and Second Trimester requirement (Average UK EAR for Females aged 11–19) 2355 kcal/day, Third Trimester requirement 2546 kcal/day, Mean over pregnancy requirement (average of three trimester values) 2419 kcal/d, ↑ Study mean higher than reference value (p < 0.05), ↔ Study mean not different to reference value (p < 0.05), ↓ Study mean lower than reference value (p < 0.05)