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Table 1 Sample description from household survey with N = 59 births before arrival and N = 1267 facility births

From: Poverty, partner discord, and divergent accounts; a mixed methods account of births before arrival to health facilities in Morogoro Region, Tanzania

Indicator (BBA n; facility delivery n) Birth before arrival
n (%)
Birth in facility
n (%)
59 1267
Characteristics of delivery
Who assisted at birth (59; 1267) (could select more than one)
 Brother/sister/friend/neighbor 27 (46 %) 36 (3 %)
 Traditional Birth Attendant 16 (27 %) 17 (1 %)
 Another person (unstated) 13 (22 %) 18 (1 %)
 Community Health volunteer 3 (5 %) 34 (3 %)
 Traditional Healer 3 (5 %) 1 (0 %)
 Health worker at dispensary 2 (3 %) 562 (44 %)
 Health worker at health center 0 (0 %) 363 (29 %)
 Health worker at hospital 0 (0 %) 293 (23 %)
 None of the above 5 (8 %) 95 (7 %)
Newborn cry at birth (59; 1267)
 Yes 51 (86 %) 1068 (84 %)
 No 4 (7 %) 151 (12 %)
 No response 4 (7 %) 48 (4 %)
Newborn still alive (59; 1267)
 Yes 55 (93 %) 1218 (96 %)
 No 2 (3 %) 34 (3 %)
 No response 2 (3 %) 15 (1 %)
Characteristics of respondent
Age (59; 1266)
 Under 19 years 6 (10 %) 203 (16 %)
 20 to 33 years 40 (68 %) 858 (68 %)
 More than 34 years 13 (22 %) 205 (16 %)
Age at first pregnancy (59; 1258)
 Under 16 years 12 (20 %) 140 (11 %)
 16 to 19 years 38 (64 %) 755 (60 %)
 More than 19 years 9 (15 %) 363 (29 %)
Parity (59; 1263)
 1 4 (7 %) 312 (25 %)
 2–3 25 (42 %) 496 (39 %)
 4+ 30 (51 %) 455 (36 %)
Woman’s education (59; 1246)
 None 22 (37 %) 280 (22 %)
 Some Primary 6 (10 %) 135 (11 %)
 Primary Complete 30 (51 %) 749 (60 %)
 Secondary or Higher 1 (2 %) 82 (7 %)
Partner’s education (42; 951)
 None 0 (0 %) 20 (2 %)
 Some Primary 4 (10 %) 68 (7 %)
 Primary Complete 37 (88 %) 757 (80 %)
 Secondary or Higher 1 (2 %) 106 (11 %)
Asset indexa quintile (59; 1267)
 Lowest 18 (31 %) 231 (18 %)
 Second 20 (34 %) 179 (14 %)
 Middle 11 (19 %) 232 (18 %)
 Fourth 7 (12 %) 291 (23 %)
 Highest 3 (5 %) 334 (26 %)
Number of ANC visits (57; 1243)
 1 3 (5 %) 13 (1 %)
 2 6 (11 %) 69 (6 %)
 3 12 (21 %) 294 (24 %)
 4 or more 36 (63 %) 867 (70 %)
Relationship to head of household (59;1261)
 Self 7 (12 %) 111 (9 %)
 Wife 43 (73 %) 892 (71 %)
 Daughter 5 (8 %) 155 (12 %)
 Other 4 (7 %) 103 (8 %)
Marital status (59; 1266)
 Married 48 (81 %) 1017 (80 %)
 Divorced, Separated, or Widowed 5 (8 %) 97 (8 %)
 Never Married 6 (10 %) 152 (12 %)
  1. aAsset index estimated using the first component of principal components analysis of asset ownership