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Table 5 Reported health problems ≥ 1 month and < 3 months postpartum

From: The prevalence of women’s emotional and physical health problems following a postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review

References Thompson et al. (2011) [27] Liu et al. (2002) [30]
Number of participants n = 171 n = 113,861
Reported Health problems ≥ 1 < 3 months postpartum
 Anxiety: State Trait Anxiety Inventory (median) 10  
 Depression: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale > 12 19 (11 %)  
 Post-traumatic stress disorder: PCL > 44 9 (5 %)  
 Health Status: SF36 ‘somewhat worse than 1 year ago’ ago’ 46 (26.9 %)  
 Health Status: SF36 ‘much worse than 1 year ago’ 14 (8.2 %)  
Physical problems:
 i. Painful perineum (vaginal births only) 54/103 (52.5 %)  
 ii. Perineal infection (vaginal births only) 6/104 (5.8 %)  
 iii. Pain at CS site (CS births only) 53/65 (81.5 %)  
 iv. CS wound infection (CS births only) 12/65 (18.5 %)  
 v. Uterine infection 10 (5.9 %)  
 vi. Urinary tract infection 11 (6.5 %)  
 vii. Stress urinary incontinence 57 (33.5 %)  
 viii. Constipation 81 (47.6 %)  
 ix. Incontinence of faeces 10 (5.9 %)  
 x. Incontinence of flatus 31 (18.5 %)  
 xi. Breast infection/ mastitis 37 (21.8 %)  
 xii. Backache 92 (54.7 %)  
 xiii. Headache (frequent) 49 (29.2 %)  
 xiv. Physical exhaustion 119 (71.2 %)  
Re-admission Reasons: 17 (10 %) 4108 (3.6 %)
 i. Mastitis/Breast abscess 4/17  
 ii. Bleeding/Retained of products of conception 3/17  
 iii. Low haemoglobin/transfusion 3/17  
 iv. Problems with perineal stitches 2/17  
 v. Postnatal depression, hyperventilation, pleuritic pain, blood clot on liver, severe migraine, neonatal jaundice 1/17 (each)  
  1. CS caesarean section