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Table 2 Trends in SII and RII in access to maternal health services and in health status; Trends in absolute and relative socio-economic inequalities in access to maternal health services and in maternal health status in South Africa

From: Growing inequities in maternal health in South Africa: a comparison of serial national household surveys

Variable Range (Q4–Q1) Slope of index inequality (95 % CI) Relative index of inequality (95 % CI) Concentration Index
  2008 2012 2008 2012 Change in equity (P-value) 2008 2012 Change in equity (P-value) 2008 2012
Received any ANC –4.3 2.6 −0.047**
(−0.094 - -0.001)
0.051
(−0.027 - 0.130)
0.030 0.951**
(0.904 - 1.000)
1.056
(0.971 - 1.149)
0.037 −0.005 0.015
Attended ≥4 ANC visits 5.7 16.0 0.024
(−0.084 - 0.132)
0.209***
(0.129 - 0.288)
0.005 1.027
(0.909 - 1.160)
1.271***
(1.139 - 1.417)
0.008 0.011 0.033
ANC visit <20 weeks gestation 23.5 30.1 0.274***
(0.106 - 0.442)
0.312***
(0.165 - 0.460)
0.741 1.831***
(1.268 - 2.644)
1.593***
(1.278 - 1.984)
0.525 0.116 0.077
Skilled birth attendant 8.5 8.4 0.121***
(0.066 - 0.176)
0.113**
(0.020 - 0.207)
0.888 1.135***
(1.071 - 1.202)
1.124**
(1.021 - 1.238)
0.869 0.017 0.018
Doctor attended childbirth 44 53.7 0.401***
(0.270 - 0.531)
0.587***
(0.449 - 0.724)
0.063 5.285***
(2.971 - 9.398)
5.802***
(3.856 - 8.728)
0.797 0.300 0.268
Offered HIV testing in pregnancy −8.4 −7.0 −0.042
(−0.106 - 0.021)
−0.042
(−0.093 - 0.009)
0.999 0.951
(0.880 - 1.028)
0.940
(0.862 - 1.024)
0.833 −0.007 −0.004
HIV test in past 2 years –2.8 1.3 −0.050
(−0.152 - 0.051)
−0.004
(−0.049 - 0.041)
0.419 0.943
(0.838 - 1.061)
0.996
(0.951 - 1.042)
0.405 0.000 −0.006
Never had HIV Test –1.4 5.0 −0.028
(−0.120 - 0.065)
0.030
(−0.031 - 0.091)
0.297 0.739
(0.264 - 2.068)
2.631
(0.395 - 17.518)
0.236 −0.001 0.450
Planned pregnancy 22.5 30.6 0.134
(−0.032 - 0.301)
0.391***
(0.258 - 0.524)
0.009 1.391
(0.929 - 2.084)
2.999***
(2.096 - 4.292)
0.004 0.078 0.161
Five or more children –8.2 −11.5 −0.099***
(−0.139 - -0.060)
−0.117***
(−0.162 - -0.073)
0.548 0.129***
(0.033 - 0.497)
0.045***
(0.014 - 0.144)
0.255 −0.326 −0.324
Poor-fair health status –10.5 −1.0 −0.150***
(−0.234 - -0.066)
0.022
(−0.068 - 0.112)
0.004 0.331***
(0.167 - 0.654)
1.165
(0.631 - 2.151)
0.004 −0.043 −0.040
HIV infection –20.6 −21.7 −0.281***
(−0.427 - -0.136)
−0.251***
(−0.372 - -0.129)
0.38 0.340***
(0.178 - 0.649)
0.372***
(0.224 - 0.620)
0.821 −0.193 −0.213
  1. Trends in absolute and relative socio-economic inequalities in access to maternal health services and in maternal health status in South Africa: the repeated cross-sectional national SABSSM surveys 2008 and 2012
  2. ** P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001