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Table 4 Logistic regression results for factors associated with attending a skilled ANC visit in the first trimester, among women attending at least one skilled ANC visit

From: Coverage and timing of antenatal care among poor women in 6 Mesoamerican countries

  Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama El Salvador
Married 0.66 [0.35,1.23] 1.78 [0.97,3.26] 2.29*** [1.42,3.70] 1.60 [1.00,2.55] 0.75 [0.40,1.43] 2.04* [1.12,3.71]
Parity (ref: 1st child)
 2nd–3rd child 1.18 [0.68,2.05] 0.61* [0.37,1.00] 0.73 [0.47,1.11] 0.59* [0.37,0.94] 1.04 [0.46,2.34] 0.74 [0.41,1.32]
 4th–5th child 0.99 [0.50,1.97] 0.48* [0.24,0.98] 0.66 [0.38,1.15] 0.42* [0.19,0.89] 0.63 [0.22,1.84] 0.46 [0.19,1.11]
 6th + child 1.29 [0.47,3.51] 0.29** [0.14,0.62] 0.69 [0.39,1.24] 0.37* [0.14,0.98] 0.39 [0.11,1.42] 0.27* [0.10,0.73]
Age (ref: <20) 1.00 [1.00,1.00] 1.00 [1.00,1.00] 1.00 [1.00,1.00] 1.00 [1.00,1.00] 1.00 [1.00,1.00] 1.00 [1.00,1.00]
 20–34 1.33 [0.72,2.46] 1.68 [0.87,3.24] 2.57*** [1.67,3.97] 1.78 [0.92,3.45] 1.42 [0.68,2.97] 1.67 [0.82,3.39]
  > =35 1.93 [0.78,4.77] 1.28 [0.56,2.93] 3.16*** [1.69,5.90] 1.39 [0.56,3.44] 1.62 [0.52,5.07] 1.73 [0.67,4.50]
Education (ref: None)
 Primary 2.04* [1.11,3.74] 2.17 [0.94,5.02] 1.35 [0.90,2.03] 1.52 [0.78,2.96] 0.65 [0.31,1.35] 0.40 [0.15,1.05]
 Post-primary 3.08** [1.42,6.68] 1.87 [0.70,5.03] 1.84* [1.15,2.94] 2.30* [1.07,4.96] 0.74 [0.35,1.59] 0.59 [0.19,1.84]
 Female head of household 0.96 [0.47,1.97] 1.15 [0.59,2.23] 1.10 [0.70,1.72] 1.23 [0.71,2.10] 1.48 [0.80,2.75] 0.81 [0.46,1.42]
 Urban 0.93 [0.52,1.66] 0.69 [0.42,1.13] 1.10 [0.78,1.57] 1.48 [0.82,2.67] (all rural) 0.57 [0.31,1.07]
Relative household expenditure per capita (ref: 1st quintile)
 2nd quintile 0.54 [0.22,1.36] 2.01** [1.24,3.27] 1.07 [0.66,1.74] 0.84 [0.46,1.55] 0.98 [0.39,2.46] 0.95 [0.40,2.22]
 3rd quintile 0.69 [0.29,1.65] 1.94** [1.18,3.19] 0.99 [0.66,1.50] 1.07 [0.61,1.91] 0.67 [0.30,1.51] 1.68 [0.66,4.29]
 4th quintile 0.92 [0.42,1.98] 1.76* [1.05,2.96] 1.15 [0.72,1.84] 0.93 [0.47,1.87] 0.82 [0.27,2.44] 1.13 [0.56,2.26]
 5th quintile 1.00 [0.45,2.22] 2.25** [1.34,3.79] 1.33 [0.77,2.31] 1.06 [0.52,2.18] 0.85 [0.33,2.23] 0.79 [0.37,1.71]
 Owns mobile phone 0.90 [0.52,1.56] 1.21 [0.76,1.93] 0.85 [0.60,1.20] 1.02 [0.70,1.46] 0.79 [0.43,1.45] 1.36 [0.72,2.55]
 Pregnancy was wanted 2.85** [1.48,5.49] 1.32 [0.88,2.00] 1.30 [0.96,1.75] 1.54* [1.01,2.36]    1.36 [0.84,2.19]
 Reported vaginal bleeding 1.07 [0.47,2.41] 1.36 [0.66,2.80] 1.37 [0.82,2.29] 0.74 [0.31,1.78] 1.37 [0.53,3.54] 1.41 [0.51,3.93]
 Previous complications 1.02 [0.53,1.95] 2.29* [1.14,4.57] 0.78 [0.52,1.17] 1.91* [1.11,3.30] 3.82 [0.89,16.27] 1.61 [0.62,4.17]
 CHW in the past month 1.73 [0.63,4.76] 1.06 [0.61,1.83] 1.26 [0.88,1.81] 1.68 [0.40,7.11] 1.01 [0.26,3.97] 0.96 [0.56,1.66]
 Media in the past week 1.04 [0.61,1.75] 0.85 [0.49,1.45] 1.22 [0.90,1.66] 1.45 [0.81,2.60] 1.32 [0.75,2.33] 1.31 [0.67,2.57]
Time to health facility (ref: <15 min)
 15–<30 min 0.54* [0.31,0.93] 1.08 [0.68,1.72] 0.96 [0.65,1.42] 0.72 [0.45,1.17] 0.93 [0.43,1.99] 1.13 [0.53,2.43]
 30–<60 min 0.68 [0.37,1.25] 0.80 [0.45,1.43] 0.76 [0.53,1.10] 0.61 [0.34,1.07] 0.80 [0.26,2.49] 0.68 [0.30,1.53]
 60+ minutes 0.68 [0.33,1.41] 1.08 [0.70,1.69] 1.48 [0.84,2.60] 0.46** [0.27,0.79] 0.43* [0.22,0.84] 0.75 [0.31,1.79]
 Insured 1.04 [0.59,1.86] 1.58 [0.31,8.07] 1.10 [0.72,1.66] 0.91 [0.30,2.77] 1.96 [0.54,7.07] 1.20 [0.42,3.43]
Languages spoken in household (ref: Spanish only)
 Spanish and indigenous 1.01 [0.63,1.63]    0.53** [0.35,0.80] 0.49* [0.25,0.93] 0.94 [0.22,4.02]   
 Indigenous only 0.92 [0.26,3.24]    0.41** [0.21,0.80]    0.82 [0.18,3.63]   
 Oportunidades      1.21 [0.88,1.68]       
  1. Bold text indicates results that are statistically significant in terms of the following: *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001