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Table 3 Logistic regression results for factors associated with attending four skilled ANC visits, among women attending at least one skilled ANC visit

From: Coverage and timing of antenatal care among poor women in 6 Mesoamerican countries

  Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama
Married 0.92 [0.54,1.58] 1.48 [0.85,2.58] 1.22 [0.70,2.13] 1.14 [0.65,1.99] 1.23 [0.68,2.22]
Parity (ref: 1st child)
 2nd–3rd child 1.38 [0.85,2.25] 0.74 [0.40,1.36] 1.20 [0.82,1.76] 0.31** [0.15,0.64] 1.50 [0.68,3.29]
 4th–5th child 1.18 [0.64,2.17] 0.55 [0.27,1.12] 0.97 [0.57,1.64] 0.28** [0.12,0.66] 1.22 [0.44,3.37]
 6th + child 1.25 [0.54,2.88] 0.30** [0.13,0.67] 0.74 [0.43,1.25] 0.23* [0.07,0.78] 1.25 [0.49,3.20]
Age (ref: <20)
 20–34 0.85 [0.44,1.64] 1.45 [0.73,2.84] 1.42 [0.88,2.29] 3.20* [1.32,7.74] 0.71 [0.29,1.75]
 > =35 1.42 [0.61,3.31] 1.69 [0.69,4.11] 1.67 [0.91,3.07] 3.94* [1.29,12.03] 0.44 [0.14,1.44]
Education (ref: None)
 Primary 1.55 [0.84,2.88] 1.40 [0.64,3.09] 1.35 [0.91,2.01] 2.51* [1.22,5.16] 0.95 [0.42,2.12]
 Post-primary 2.18* [1.10,4.31] 1.78 [0.71,4.44] 1.99** [1.25,3.17] 3.89** [1.49,10.13] 0.87 [0.37,2.07]
 Female head of household 0.78 [0.41,1.48] 1.02 [0.52,1.98] 0.90 [0.55,1.49] 1.25 [0.70,2.23] 1.45 [0.94,2.22]
 Urban 1.57 [0.87,2.85] 0.81 [0.50,1.34] 1.27 [0.87,1.85] 1.40 [0.64,3.05] (all rural)
Relative household expenditure per capita (ref: 1st quintile)
 2nd quintile 0.91 [0.43,1.89] 1.08 [0.56,2.05] 1.19 [0.81,1.76] 0.71 [0.33,1.51] 3.67*** [1.79,7.53]
 3rd quintile 0.87 [0.46,1.64] 1.46 [0.80,2.66] 1.18 [0.76,1.82] 0.60 [0.28,1.29] 1.25 [0.63,2.48]
 4th quintile 0.83 [0.47,1.48] 1.18 [0.64,2.18] 1.10 [0.68,1.76] 0.88 [0.33,2.31] 1.91 [0.91,4.02]
 5th quintile 0.84 [0.46,1.55] 1.12 [0.57,2.23] 1.39 [0.81,2.38] 0.48 [0.20,1.16] 3.09** [1.38,6.90]
 Owns mobile phone 0.85 [0.54,1.33] 0.78 [0.48,1.28] 0.94 [0.66,1.33] 1.08 [0.65,1.78] 1.20 [0.67,2.15]
 Pregnancy was wanted 2.46** [1.39,4.33] 1.18 [0.76,1.82] 1.32 [0.94,1.85] 1.53 [0.88,2.64]   
 Reported vaginal bleeding 0.72 [0.37,1.38] 1.39 [0.58,3.32] 0.82 [0.50,1.36] 1.02 [0.41,2.53] 1.69 [0.73,3.94]
 Previous complications 1.44 [0.76,2.70] 0.83 [0.44,1.56] 0.62* [0.40,0.97] 1.33 [0.55,3.24] 1.77 [0.55,5.64]
 CHW in the past month 0.68 [0.30,1.50] 2.37 [0.83,6.76] 1.16 [0.80,1.68] 1.20 [0.16,8.74] 1.20 [0.38,3.77]
 Media in the past week 1.63* [1.05,2.53] 1.31 [0.81,2.13] 1.38* [1.01,1.87] 2.14* [1.15,3.98] 2.18** [1.29,3.69]
Time to health facility (ref: <15 min)
 15–<30 min 0.68 [0.42,1.09] 0.72 [0.40,1.30] 1.06 [0.75,1.51] 1.21 [0.45,3.22] 1.42 [0.45,4.50]
 30–<60 min 1.16 [0.63,2.16] 0.66 [0.37,1.17] 1.07 [0.74,1.56] 0.88 [0.39,1.97] 0.77 [0.35,1.72]
 60+ minutes 0.69 [0.36,1.33] 0.69 [0.38,1.26] 0.98 [0.58,1.66] 0.72 [0.33,1.59] 0.71 [0.35,1.43]
 Insured 1.78 [0.92,3.44] 1.21 [0.23,6.55] 1.55* [1.10,2.20] 1.65 [0.39,7.07] 1.22 [0.34,4.32]
Languages spoken in household (ref: Spanish only)
 Spanish and indigenous 1.08 [0.66,1.76]    0.54** [0.37,0.78] 0.55 [0.22,1.39] 0.35 [0.08,1.49]
 Indigenous only 0.80 [0.25,2.59]    0.47* [0.26,0.85]    0.41 [0.09,1.88]
 Oportunidades      1.31 [0.93,1.83]     
  1. Bold text indicates results that are statistically significant in terms of the following: *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001
  2. Note: In El Salvador, it was not possible to determine whether a woman attended four skilled ANC visits due to the design of the survey