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Table 4 Comparative analysis of measures between ethnic minorities and the White reference group

From: Who is distressed? A comparison of psychosocial stress in pregnancy across seven ethnicities

  Ethnicity  
  White Asian Other Asian Arab Latin American Black First Nations Mixed/other  
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) X 2 (df = 7)
Social Support (N = 3318)
 Symptomatica 256 (9.8) 44 (27.5) 76 (33.9) 15 (35.7) 22 (28.2) 14 (28.6) 9 (28.1) 21 (18.4) 184.626*
 Normal 2363 (90.2) 116 (72.5) 148 (66.1) 27 (64.3) 56 (71.8) 35 (71.4) 23 (71.9) 93 (81.6)
Depression (N = 3141)
 Symptomatic 148 (5.9) 11 (7.0) 27 (12.9) 6 (15.4) 5 (7.2) 3 (6.8) 2 (7.7) 10 (9.4) 21.116*
 Normal 2342 (94.1) 147 (93.0) 182 (87.1) 33 (84.6) 64 (92.8) 41 (93.2) 24 (92.3) 96 (90.6)
State Anxiety (N = 3080)
 Symptomatic 420 (17.0) 24 (16.0) 44 (22.6) 17 (50.0) 18 (27.7) 11 (26.2) 7 (29.2) 20 (18.9) 35.966*
 Normal 2044 (83.0) 126 (84.0) 151 (77.4) 17 (50.0) 47 (72.3) 31 (73.8) 17 (70.8) 86 (81.1)
PSSb at <25 weeks (N = 3311)
 Symptomatic 513 (19.7) 39 (24.1) 74 (32.9) 17 (39.5) 22 (28.9) 14 (28.6) 12 (37.5) 26 (22.0) 39.867*
 Normal 2093 (80.3) 123 (75.9) 151 (67.1) 26 (60.5) 54 (71.1) 35 (71.4) 20 (62.5) 92 (78.0)
PSS at 35 (±1) weeks (N = 2899)
 Symptomatic 489 (21.2) 30 (21.4) 63 (31.8) 16 (44.4) 15 (23.1) 11 (26.2) 9 (45.0) 24 (25.0) 28.283*
 Normal 1813 (78.8) 110 (78.6) 135 (68.2) 20 (55.6) 50 (76.9) 31 (73.8) 11 (55.0) 72 (75.0)
Emotional Health (N = 3353)
 Symptomatic 275 (10.4) 29 (17.7) 43 (18.5) 8 (18.6) 9 (11.4) 10 (20.0) 9 (28.1) 13 (11) 33.665*
 Normal 2360 (89.6) 135 (82.3) 189 (81.5) 35 (81.4) 70 (88.6) 40 (80.0) 23 (71.9) 105 (89)
Physical Health (N = 3353)
 Symptomatic 371 (14.1) 39 (23.8) 57 (24.6) 6 (14.0) 13 (16.5) 7 (14.0) 9 (28.1) 23 (19.5) 32.429*
 Normal 2264 (85.9) 125 (76.2) 175 (75.4) 37 (86.0) 66 (83.5) 43 (86.0) 23 (71.9) 95 (80.5)
  1. *p ≤ .005
  2. aSymptomatic = above clinical cut-off scores
  3. b PSS perceived stress scale