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Table 7 Summary of the studies examining associations of maternal carbohydrate/protein with offspring cognitive function

From: Association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence; a systematic review

Author, Year, Sample size, Age, Country, Study design Nutrient Cognitive function Results after adjustment for confounders QS and RB
45Alderman H; 2014
 N = 6774
 Age 16-22 years
 Double blind cluster randomized controlled trial
Carbohydrate/protein supplements
Intervention Group:
2 biscuits daily (1015 kcal carbohydrate and 22 g protein) from 20 weeks of gestation to delivery
Control group: same supplements for 20 weeks during postpartum but not during pregnancy
No information about compliance
Raven’s progressive matrices- nonverbal reasoning ability
The Mill Hill vocabulary test
The backward and forward digit-span test
Schooling achievement (questionnaire)
No difference in any of the cognitive test scores or schooling achievement between children whose mothers received the
supplements during pregnancy and children whose mothers received supplements during postpartum.
Confounders adjusted for: The child’s sex, age, GA, ME, PE, maternal height, parity, season of birth, language and village allocation
19 Low
  1. QS quality score, RB risk of bias, GA gestational age, ME maternal education, PE paternal education