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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of all registry births ≥1500 g pre-post HBB intervention

From: A pre-post study of a multi-country scale up of resuscitation training of facility birth attendants: does Helping Babies Breathe training save lives?

  Kenya Nagpur, India Belgaum, India Total
Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Registry deliveriesa, n 8875 8394 9461 9721 16,992 16,715 35,328 34,830
Birth location, n (%)
  Hospital 1203 (13.6) 1296 (15.4) 6323 (66.8) 6995 (72.0) 12,501 (73.6) 11,931 (71.4) 20,027 (56.7) 20,222 (58.1)
  Clinic 2514 (28.3) 2791 (33.2) 2966 (31.4) 2638 (27.1) 3708 (21.8) 4098 (24.5) 9188 (26.0) 9527 (27.4)
  Home/Other 5158 (58.1) 4307 (51.3) 170 (1.8) 88 (0.9) 783 (4.6) 686 (4.1) 6111 (17.3) 5081 (14.6)
Birth attendant, n (%)
  Physician 209 (2.4) 203 (2.4) 5701 (60.3) 6289 (64.7) 10,446 (61.5) 10,149 (60.7) 16,356 (46.3) 16,641 (47.8)
  Nurse/midwife 3617 (40.8) 3929 (46.8) 3597 (38.0) 3355 (34.5) 5838 (34.4) 5973 (35.7) 13,052 (36.9) 13,257 (38.1)
  TBA 3930 (44.3) 3154 (37.6) 110 (1.2) 45 (0.5) 225 (1.3) 159 (1.0) 4265 (12.1) 3358 (9.6)
  Family/unattended 1119 (12.6) 1108 (13.2) 53 (0.6) 32 (0.3) 483 (2.8) 434 (2.6) 1655 (4.7) 1574 (4.5)
Maternal education, n (%)
  No formal schooling 249 (2.8) 228 (2.7) 262 (2.8) 259 (2.7) 3091 (18.3) 2460 (14.7) 3602 (10.2) 2947 (8.5)
  Primary 6174 (69.6) 5690 (68.4) 1575 (16.7) 1636 (16.9) 5300 (31.3) 5207 (31.2) 13,049 (37.0) 12,533 (36.0)
  Secondary 2071 (23.3) 2019 (24.3) 5705 (60.4) 5669 (58.5) 6786 (40.1) 7005 (41.2) 14,562 (41.0) 14,693 (42.0)
  University + 378 (4.3) 376 (4.5) 1899 (20.1) 2129 (22.0) 1730 (10.2) 2022 (12.1) 4007 (11.4) 4527 (13.0)
Maternal age, n (%)
  < 20 1933 (21.8) 1884 (22.7) 189 (2.0) 182 (1.9) 1650 (9.7) 1584 (9.5) 3772 (10.7) 3650 (10.5)
  20–35 6595 (74.3) 6083 (73.2) 9226 (97.6) 9494 (97.8) 15,318 (90.1) 15,101 (90.3) 31,139 (88.2) 30,678 (88.3)
  > 35 343 (3.9) 345 (4.1) 35 (0.37) 31 (0.32) 23 (0.14) 30 (0.18) 401 (1.1) 406 (1.2)
Paritya, n (%)
  0 2263 (25.5) 2232 (26.6) 4519 (47.8) 4568 (47.0) 7208 (43.5) 7253 (43.4) 13,990 (40.1) 14,053 (40.4)
  1–2 3550 (40.0) 3269 (39.0) 4703 (49.7) 4892 (50.3) 8305 (50.1) 8486 (50.8) 16,558 (47.5) 16,647 (47.8)
  > 2 3056 (34.5) 2883 (34.4) 236 (2.5) 258 (2.7) 1053 (6.4) 969 (5.8) 4345 (12.5) 4110 (11.8)
Labor complications, n (%) 1406 (15.8) 1269 (15.1) 1356 (14.3) 1530 (15.7) 2428 (14.3) 3050 (18.3) 5190 (14.7) 5849 (16.8)
Caesarean rate, n (%) 162 (1.8) 162 (1.9) 1879 (19.9) 2202 (22.7) 2509 (14.8) 3103 (18.6) 4550 (12.9) 5467 (15.7)
Multiple births, n (%) 99 (1.1) 102 (1.2) 57 (0.6) 68 (0.7) 122 (0.7) 103 (0.6) 278 (0.8) 273 (0.8)
Corticosteroids, n (%)
  Yes 59 (1.1) 124 (1.5) 123 (6.3) 416 (4.4) 422 (3.0) 1225 (7.3) 604 (2.8) 1765 (5.1)
  No 5228 (98.9) 8209 (98.5) 1809 (92.8) 8880 (94.8) 13,746 (96.3) 15,446 (92.4) 20,783 (96.6) 32,535 (94.5)
  Don’t know 0 (0.0) 3 (0.04) 18 (0.92) 73 (0.78) 103 (0.72) 44 (0.46) 121 (0.56) 120 (0.35)
Registry births, n (%) 8972 8510 9514 9784 17,109 16,815 35,595 35,109
 Male, n (%) 4582 (51.1) 4281 (50.3) 4998 (52.5) 5018 (51.3) 8927 (52.2) 8687 (51.7) 18,507 (52.0) 17,986 (51.2)
Birth weight (g) b, n (%)
  1500–2499 256 (2.9) 267 (3.2) 1336 (14.1) 1441 (14.7) 2261 (13.2) 3292 (19.7) 3853 (10.9) 5000 (14.3)
  ≥ 2500 8429 (97.1) 8145 (96.8) 8152 (85.9) 8336 (85.3) 14,824 (86.8) 13,441 (80.3) 31,405 (89.1) 29,922 (85.7)
Registry births ≥ 1500 g, n 8972 8510 9514 9784 17,109 16,815 35,595 35,109
Registry births ≥ 1500 g in facilities, n (%) 3778 (42.1) 4164 (48.9) 9342 (98.2) 9693 (99.1) 16,323 (95.4) 16,129 (95.9) 29,443 (82.7) 29,986 (85.4)
Registry births ≥ 1500 g in HBB-trained facilities, n (%) 3235 (36.1) 3481 (40.9) 4053 (42.6) 4373 (44.7) 7944 (46.4) 8131 (48.4) 15,232 (42.8) 15,985 (45.5)
 Primary facility, n (%) c 2620 (81.0) 2733 (78.5) 207 (5.1) 227 (5.2) 2713 (34.2) 2924 (36.0) 5540 (36.4) 5884 (36.8)
 Secondary facility, n (%) 615 (19.0) 748 (21.5) 432 (10.7) 521 (11.9) 3935 (49.5) 3930 (48.3) 4982 (32.7) 5199 (32.5)
 Tertiary facility, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3414 (84.2) 3625 (82.9) 1296 (16.3) 1277 (15.7) 4710 (30.9) 4902 (30.7)
Non-HBB trained facilities, n (%) 543 (6.1) 683 (8.0) 5289 (55.6) 5320 (54.4) 8379 (49.0) 7998 (47.6) 14,211 (39.9) 14,001 (40.0)
  1. a Deliveries indicate number of mothers
  2. b Birth weight measured or estimated within 7 days of delivery (N = 516 excluded). Birth weight values > 5500 g are excluded (n = 8)
  3. c Primary facilities do not perform c-sections; secondary facilities have c-section staff on call; tertiary facilities have 24 h/7 days per week c-section staff available