Skip to main content

Table 1 Child, maternal, household, and delivery characteristics by ethnicitya

From: Infant and young child feeding practices differ by ethnicity of Vietnamese mothers

  Kinh (n = 989) Thai-Muong (n = 309) Tay-Nung (n = 229) E De-Mnong (n = 348)
Maternal characteristics:
 Mother age (years):
   < 20 y 5.1 (3.9, 6.6) 17.2 (12.8, 22.5)* 9.6 (7.0, 13.1)* 14.1 (9.3, 20.7)*
  20–24 y 32.0 (29.1, 34.9) 39.8 (31.4, 48.8) 46.3 (35.5, 57.4)* 34.5 (29.5, 39.8)
  25–29 y 34.3 (31.1, 37.6) 28.8 (22.6, 35.9) 25.3 (20.5, 30.8)* 26.4 (22.4, 30.9)*
   ≥ 30 y 28.7 (26.0, 31.6) 14.2 (11.5, 17.5)* 18.8 (11.7, 28.8) 25.0 (19.6, 31.3)
 Mother education level:
   ≤ 5 y 10.2 (8.4, 12.4) 20.7 (8.9, 41.1) 27.9 (19.2, 38.8)* 39.9 (32.3, 48.1)*
  6–9 y 49.7 (46.5, 53.0) 56.6 (49.2, 63.8) 41.5 (34.2, 49.2) 28.2 (24.2, 32.5)*
  10–12 y 25.7 (23.0, 28.6) 14.2 (8.2, 23.5) 26.2 (19.0, 35.0) 29.9 (22.3, 38.7)
   ≥ 12 y 14.4 (12.4, 16.6) 8.4 (4.0, 17.0) 4.4 (2.3, 8.2)* 2.0 (0.9, 4.3)*
 Mother occupation:
  Farmer, Fisherman 34.0 (30.5,37.6) 86.4 (81.5, 90.2)* 88.6 (82.7, 92.7)* 88.8 (85.5, 91.4)*
  Salaried employee 21.1 (18.4,24.2) 7.4 (4.4, 12.2)* 3.5 (1.7, 7.2)* 2.9 (1.6, 5.1)
  Small trader, self-employed 20.6 (18.2,23.3) 2.6 (1.4, 4.7)* 4.4 (2.5, 7.6)* 0.6 (0.1, 2.2)*
  Household work/housewife 24.3 (21.4,27.4) 3.6 (2.7, 4.7) 3.5 (2.1, 5.7)* 7.8 (5.5, 10.9)*
Household food insecurity status:
  No (Food secured) 59.3 (55.6, 62.8) 26.2 (24.2, 28.3)* 27.5 (22.3, 33.4)* 11.5 (8.2, 15.8)*
  Mid 14.6 (12.5, 16.9) 15.5 (11.0, 21.5) 22.3 (18.1, 27.0) 10.3 (7.6, 14.0)*
  Moderate 18.8 (16.3, 21.6) 35.0 (28.2, 42.4) 44.5 (40.7, 48.5)* 50.9 (45.1, 56.6)*
  Severe 7.4 (5.7, 9.5) 23.3 (13.9, 36.3) 5.7 (3.6, 8.9)* 27.3 (22.5, 32.7)
Delivery characteristics:
 Delivery venue:
  In hospitals 81.1 (77.5, 84.2) 23.9 (14.1, 37.6)* 73.4 (67.6, 78.5) 68.4 (56.4, 78.3)
  In commune health centers 17.4 (14.5, 20.7) 27.2 (16.3, 41.8) 23.6 (17.5, 31.0) 7.5 (4.0, 13.7)*
  At home 1.5 (0.6, 4.0) 48.9 (28.5, 69.6)* 3.1 (1.2, 7.4) 24.1 (15.7, 35.3)*
 Cesarean delivery 22.4 (19.9, 25.2) 5.5 (3.2, 9.2)* 12.7 (9.6, 16.5)* 12.1 (8.1, 17.6)*
Professional breastfeeding advice or support:
 During pregnancy 47.9 (44.8, 51.1) 23.6 (17.8, 30.7)* 30.6 (23.4, 38.8)* 22.1 (17.3, 27.9)*
 During 3 days after birth 32.6 (29.6, 35.7) 13.6 (11.9, 15.5)* 26.2 (21.7, 31.2) 18.4 (12.8, 25.7)*
Infant characteristics
 Being a boy 51.0 (47.9,54.0) 50.5 (46.9,54.0) 48.5 (43.8,53.2) 50.3 (44.5,56.1)
 Mean age (mo) 8.5 (8.0,8.9) 10.4 (9.3,11.4)* 10.0 (9.4,10.7)* 7.7 (6.5,9.0)
Age groups:
  0–5 months 54.6 (51.2,58.0) 37.2 (34.6,39.9)* 39.7 (33.8,46.0)* 56.6 (45.1,67.4)
  6–11 month 17.3 (15.1,19.7) 23.3 (16.0,32.6) 24.5 (21.3,28.0)* 19.0 (13.6,25.8)
  12–17 months 14.1 (12.1,16.2) 23.0 (16.6,31.0)* 13.5 (9.3,19.3) 12.6 (8.7,18.0)
  18–23 months 14.1 (12.2,16.2) 16.5 (12.5,21.4) 22.3 (19.2,25.6) 11.8 (8.5,16.0)
  1. aData from Alive & Thrive baseline surveys, 2011 and 2012 [24, 25]. Values are percentage (95 % CIs). Significantly different from Kinh (2-sided χ 2 test): *P < 0.05