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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics Stratified by Vitamin D level at 12–20 weeks

From: Vitamin D levels and perinatal depressive symptoms in women at risk: a secondary analysis of the mothers, omega-3, and mental health study

Parameter Vitamin D
≥20 ng/mL
Vitamin D
<20 ng/mL
P – value
(N = 98) (N = 19)
Age    a0.03b
Mean, S.D. 30.8, 5.04 27.8, 5.04
Gravidity    0.17c
Mean, S.D. 2.36, 1.49 3.00, 1.91
Parity    0.27c
Mean, S.D. .89, 0.98 1.15, 1.12
Gestational age (weeks) at enrollment    0.57b
Mean, S.D. 16.3, 2.41 16.7, 2.60
White N (percent) 82 (84) 14 (74) 0.38d
Non-White N (percent) 16 (16) 5 (26)
Self-reported history of depression    1.00d
N (percent) 79 (81) 15 (79)
Reported tobacco use    a0.004d
N (percent) 6 (6) 6 (32)
BMI    0.10c
Mean, S.D. 27.62, 6.82 31.00, 7.85
October-March at enrollment    0.81d
N (percent) 55 (56) 10 (53)
EPA (as % of total fatty acids)    0.11c
Mean, S.D .37, .21 .32, .24
DHA (as % of total fatty acids)    0.44c
Mean, S.D. 3.18, 1.32 2.91, 0.80
BDI at baseline 7.4, 4.9 10.2, 7.1 0.11
  1. S.D. standard deviation, BMI body-mass index, a = statistically significant
  2. bStudent’s t-test
  3. cMann-Whitney test
  4. dFisher’s Exact test