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Table 5 Multivariate logistic regression of ANC and delivery care utilization in Bangladesh, 2004–2011

From: Progress in the utilization of antenatal and delivery care services in Bangladesh: where does the equity gap lie?

Antenatal Care Delivery Care
Variable (4+)ANC Visits Medically Trained ANC (2+)Tetanus Injection Health Facility Delivery Skilled Birth Assistance C-Section Delivery
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Age (in years) 1.00 (0.99,1.02) 1.02* (1.00,1.03) 1.01 (1.00,1.02) 1.04***(1.02,1.06) 1.04***(1.02,1.07) 1.05*** (1.02,1.08)
Age at first birth (Ref = 11–14)
 Age at first birth (15–19) 0.77*(0.61,0.97) 1.02 (0.88,1.18) 0.84* (0.72,0.97) 1.16 (0.91,1.48) 1.10 (0.86,1.42) 1.48* (1.00,2.19)
 Age at first birth (20–24) 0.91 (0.69,1.22) 1.09 (0.90,1.32) 0.76** (0.63,0.92) 1.45* (1.08,1.94) 1.44* (1.07,1.93) 2.14*** (1.39,3.28)
 Age at first birth (25–42) 1.12 (0.72,1.74) 1.04 (0.75,1.44) 0.90 (0.65,1.24) 2.74*** (1.78,4.24) 2.41*** (1.58,3.69) 3.37*** (1.93,5.90)
Parity (Ref = 1)
 Parity (2) 0.83*(0.72,0.97) 0.70***(0.61,0.80) 0.51*** (0.45,0.58) 0.59*** (0.50,0.69) 0.57***(0.48,0.67) 0.64*** (0.53,0.78)
 Parity (3+) 0.59***(0.47,0.75) 0.57***(0.47,0.68) 0.31*** (0.25,0.37) 0.36*** (0.28,0.48) 0.38***(0.29,0.51) 0.37*** (0.25,0.54)
 Urban (ref = rural) 1.80*** (1.53,2.12) 1.56*** (1.35,1.81) 0.96 (0.85,1.08) 1.69*** (1.43,1.99) 1.54*** (1.31,1.81) 1.12 (0.92,1.35)
Division (ref = Barisal)
 Chittagong 0.78 (0.59,1.04) 1.19 (0.97,1.46) 0.57*** (0.47,0.70) 1.13 (0.87,1.46) 1.08 (0.85,1.38) 1.07 (0.79,1.44)
 Dhaka 0.96 (0.74,1.24) 1.15 (0.94,1.39) 0.65*** (0.53,0.79) 1.61*** (1.25,2.07) 1.57*** (1.24,1.99) 1.96*** (1.44,2.67)
 Khulna 1.13 (0.86,1.49) 1.59*** (1.27,1.99) 0.43*** (0.35,0.53) 2.61*** (2.02,3.38) 2.36*** (1.86,2.99) 1.90*** (1.39,2.61)
 Rajshahi 1.56** (1.19,2.03) 1.48*** (1.20,1.82) 0.60*** (0.49,0.74) 1.78***(1.38,2.29) 1.56*** (1.23,1.98) 1.52** (1.12,2.06)
 Sylhet 0.74 (0.55,1.00) 1.39* (1.07,1.82) 0.43*** (0.34,0.54) 1.20 (0.91,1.58) 1.15 (0.89,1.48) 1.24 (0.89,1.71)
Wealth quintile (Ref = Poorest)
 Poorer 1.00 (0.78,1.30) 1.15 (0.99,1.34) 1.04 (0.90,1.20) 0.92 (0.70,1.19) 0.87 (0.65,1.15) 1.41 (0.91,2.19)
 Middle 1.24 (0.98,1.56) 1.44*** (1.22,1.70) 1.05 (0.91,1.22) 1.18 (0.91,1.52) 1.30 (1.00,1.70) 1.92** (1.26,2.92)
 Richer 1.70*** (1.33,2.19) 1.98*** (1.65,2.36) 1.00 (0.84,1.18) 1.82*** (1.41,2.34) 1.82*** (1.41,2.36) 2.63*** (1.72,4.03)
 Richest 2.91*** (2.24,3.78) 4.06*** (3.25,5.06) 1.26* (1.04,1.52) 3.16*** (2.40,4.17) 3.32*** (2.51,4.38) 4.89*** (3.17,7.54)
 Microcredit involvement (Ref = No) 1.22** (1.07,1.38) 1.14* (1.02,1.27) 1.01 (0.91,1.12) 1.10 (0.95,1.26) 1.08 (0.93,1.25) 1.10 (0.91,1.32)
Mass media exposure (Ref = No)
 Irregular 1.04 (0.83,1.29) 1.10 (0.94,1.28) 1.09 (0.94,1.27) 1.09 (0.86,1.37) 1.10 (0.87,1.39) 1.29 (0.94,1.76)
 Regular 1.27* (1.06,1.51) 1.27*** (1.11,1.44) 1.06 (0.95,1.18) 1.26* (1.04,1.52) 1.21* (1.01,1.45) 1.36* (1.06,1.73)
Health care decision making autonomy (Ref = No)
 Low 1.21* (1.00,1.46) 1.33*** (1.15,1.55) 1.01 (0.88,1.16) 1.04 (0.85,1.27) 1.09 (0.89,1.34) 1.28 (0.99,1.68)
 Medium 1.36** (1.13,1.64) 1.29*** (1.12,1.48) 1.03 (0.91,1.17) 1.00 (0.82,1.21) 1.06 (0.87,1.29) 1.28 (0.99,1.64)
 High 1.53*** (1.28,1.84) 1.51*** (1.30,1.75) 1.11 (0.96,1.28) 1.05 (0.87,1.28) 1.12 (0.92,1.36) 1.10 (0.86,1.41)
 Employment (Ref = No) 0.86 (0.72,1.03) 1.03 (0.88,1.19) 0.94 (0.83,1.08) 0.77* (0.63,0.95) 0.82* (0.67,0.99) 0.74* (0.58,0.96)
 Own education ((in years)) 1.12*** (1.09,1.14) 1.11*** (1.09,1.13) 0.96*** (0.94,0.98) 1.12*** (1.09,1.15) 1.11*** (1.08,1.14) 1.10*** (1.07,1.13)
 Husband’s education (in years) 1.05*** (1.04,1.07) 1.05*** (1.04,1.07) 1.00 (0.99,1.02) 1.06*** (1.04,1.08) 1.06*** (1.04,1.08) 1.08*** (1.05,1.10)
Survey fixed effect (Ref = 2004)
 Survey 2 (Year = 2007) 1.10 (0.90,1.33) 0.79** (0.67,0.93) 0.77*** (0.67,0.88) 1.35** (1.10,1.64) 1.40*** (1.15,1.70) 1.74*** (1.39,2.17)
 Survey 3 (Year = 2011) 1.29** (1.09,1.52) 0.76*** (0.66,0.89) 0.44*** (0.38,0.50) 2.91*** (2.41,3.51) 2.47*** (2.05,2.97) 4.03*** (3.27,4.95)
  1. Notes: 1) Significant at * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.01, 2) Odds ratio was adjusted for all other explanatory variables