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Table 1 Overview of 17 RCTs of midwifery-led care

From: Midwifery-led antenatal care models: mapping a systematic review to an evidence-based quality framework to identify key components and characteristics of care

     Care provision
Study: First author; main article publication date (+ any subsidiary papers); Data collection years Country; number of intervention participants (n=); (+ sites involved in study) Study participants: n=; characteristics Brief intervention details Antenatal Intra-partum (inc. immediate post-partum day Post-partum, beyond day of birth
1.Begley et al. 2011 [67]
Data collection 2005–07
Ireland; two midwifery units (Drogheda, Cavan) n = 1102; Healthy pregnant women (i.e. low risk) Midwifery-led care by same small team of midwives (7 midwives in one unit/team, 12 in the other unit) for the antenatal period, intra-partum and up to 7 days post-partum (7 days)
2.Biro et al. 2003 [26]
(+Biro 2000) [41]
Data collection 1996–98
Australia; one medical centre (Melbourne) n = 502; Pregnant women of any risk status Team midwifery provided by 7 midwives for antenatal, intra-partum and the immediate post-partum period (1 day) (1 day)
3.Flint et al. 1989 [27]
Data collection 1983–85
UK (England); one maternity hospital (London) n = 503; Low risk pregnant women Team of 4 midwives offering continuity of care for antenatal, labour and immediate post-partum period (exact period not specified) (unspecified)
4.Giles et al. 1992 [28]
Data collection
1989–90
Australia; one teaching hospital (Sydney) n = 43; Low risk pregnant women Midwife-led care from team of 4 midwives throughout pregnancy (labour and post-partum care was provided by other staff/midwives) ???  
5.Gu et al. 2013 [29]
Data collection 2011
China; one obstetric hospital (Fudan) n = 55; Low risk, first pregnancy/birth Midwife-led antenatal, intra-partum care, and for first two hours post-partum provided by one of 10 midwives (or an associate)  
6.Harvey et al. 2002 [30]
Data collection period not stated
Canada; one tertiary referral centre (Alberta) n = 101; Low risk women/pregnancies Midwife-led care by team of 7 midwives, from booking visit through to intra-partum and post-partum, plus a 6 week follow-up clinic visit (one 6 week follow-up visit)
7.Hicks 2003 [31]
Data collection period not stated
UK (England); antenatal clinics in study area
(location not stated)
n = 200; First 200 low risk women to book in study area once study began Team midwifery (eight midwives) providing continuity of care
8. Homer et al. 2001a [68] [BJOG]
(+Homer et al. 2001b [37] [AHR])
Data collection 1997–98
Australia; one teaching hospital (Sydney) n = 550; Women with no significant medical problems or previous caesarean (i.e. low risk) Community-based continuity of midwifery care through a team of 6 midwives and one obstetrician; intra-partum care and 3–4 domiciliary visits in post-natal period (3–4 visits)
9.McLachlan BK et al. 2000 [40]
Data collection period not stated
UK (England); 35 GP practices across six areas (North Staffordshire) n = 770; Any pregnant women in study area Caseload midwifery – midwives working in groups of 2–3 to achieve high degree of continuity with community focussed care for pregnancy and delivery in hospital. No community follow-up specified  
10.McLachlan HL et al. 2012 [23]
Data collection
2007–11
Australia; one tertiary hospital (Melbourne) n = 1156; Low risk women/pregnancies Caseload midwifery – one primary midwife with back-up midwives. From booking visit until birth, and early post-natal hospital stay (approx. 1–3 days). (1–3 days in hospital)
11.Rowley et al. 1995 [48]
Data collection 1991–92
Australia; one tertiary university hospital (NSW) n = 405; High or low risk women/pregnancies Team midwifery from 6 midwives for antenatal period until delivery and ‘just after’ birth  
12.Tracy et al. 2013 [32]
Data collection 2008–11
Australia; two teaching hospitals (NSW and Brisbane) n = 871; Pregnant women with any risk: singleton pregnancy and no planned caesarean (other risks acceptable) Caseload midwifery from named midwife or back-up midwife, giving antenatal, intra-partum and post-natal care (up to 6 weeks after birth) (up to 6wks)
13.Turnbull et al. 1996 [65]
(+Young 1997 [69], Shields 1998 [70], Turnbull 1999 [71])
Data collection 1993–94
UK (Scotland); One maternity hospital (Glasgow) n = 648; Low risk women/pregnancies Midwife-led care with continuity of carer (named midwife with back-up midwife), throughout antenatal, intra-partum and post-natal period (women seen at home, but length of follow-up not specified) (unspecified)
14.Waldenström et al. 2000 [72] (+Waldenström 2001 [73])
Data collection 1996–97
Australia; one women’s hospital (Melbourne) n = 495; Low risk women/pregnancies Team midwifery (8 midwives) providing continuity of care from booking visit, to birth, and post-natal ward (days 1–3, in hospital) (1–3 days in hospital)
15. Waldenström et al. 1994 [35]
(+Waldenström 1997a Birth [74], Waldenström 1997b BJOG [38])
Data collection 1989–93
Sweden; one birthing centre (Stockholm) n = 928; Low risk women/pregnancies Team midwifery (10 midwives) providing antenatal, intra-partum, and post-partum care (up to 2 months after birth) (up to 2 months)
16.Walker et al. 2013 [33]
Data collection 2009–10
Mexico; 27 rural clinics (Oaxaca and Guerrero states) n = 461; All pregnant women in study area Team of 12: obstetric nurses (4) and midwives (8) added to rural practice care for antenatal, intra-partum and post-natal period (length of follow-up not specified) (unspecified)
17.Wu et al. 2010 [34]
Data collection 2000–3
China; rural community-based model (Anhui province) n = 673; All pregnant women in intervention areas Systematic midwifery care during antenatal care and delivery