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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the research population

From: Early pregnancy fasting plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in pregnancy and association to offspring size: a retrospective cohort study

  GDM NGT P
Number 276 1270  
Age (mean ± SD) 31.85±4.24 29.42±3.82 <0.001
Parity (%)    0.002
Nullipara 234(84.7) 969(76.2)  
Multipara 42(15.2) 301(23.7)  
Maternal BMI (kg/m2)    
Before pregnancy 21.20±3.00 20.47±2.60 <0.001
At first prenatal visit 22.60±3.26 21.63±2.80 <0.001
At OGTT test 24.46±3.09 23.65±2.65 <0.001
At delivery 25.76±3.16 26.04±2.87 0.195
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)    
First Visit FPG 4.46±0.51 4.27±0.38 <0.001
OGTT FPG 4.61±0.53 4.27±0.31 <0.001
Before Delivery FPG 5.22±1.29 4.90±0.99 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.04±0.42 4.82±0.31 <0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 31.83±4.63 29.37±3.42 <0.001
Lipid profile    
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 2.31±0.84 2.09±0.76 <0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 6.09±1.02 6.11±0.99 0.754
Low density lipoprotein (mmol/L) 3.26±0.86 3.30±0.81 0.452
High density lipoprotein (mmol/L) 1.82±0.35 1.85±0.33 0.117
Apolipoprotein A1 (g/L) 2.05±0.31 2.01±0.34 0.103
Apolipoprotein B (g/L) 0.94±0.17 0.94±0.18 0.820
Apolipoprotein E (mg/L) 48.32±13.28 46.66±12.67 0.050
Lipoprotein-a (mg/L) 298.70±300.33 307.35±265.39 0.632
Neonatal gender (%)    0.947
 Male 143(51.8) 969(76.2)  
 Female 133(48.1) 301(23.7)  
Gestational age (day) 271.33±11.70 273.94±11.91 <0.001
Birth weight (g) 3105.49±496.54 3165.55±460.05 0.063
Birth length (cm) 48.96±2.63 49.33±2.39 0.022
head circumference (cm) 33.27±1.98 33.35±1.73 0.583
shoulder circumference (cm) 34.33±2.52 34.45±2.32 0.482
Birth method (%)    0.549
 Vaginal 121(43.8) 584(45.9)  
 Cesarean 155(56.1) 686(54)