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Table 4 Diagnostic criteria used for the definition of severe maternal outcomes (maternal near miss cases and maternal deaths) in the 3100 women with obstetric complications (including abortion-related complications)

From: Maternal near misses from two referral hospitals in Uganda: a prospective cohort study on incidence, determinants and prognostic factors

Characteristics All women Maternal deaths Maternal near miss p-value
Number n = 3100 Number (n = 130) Number (n = 695)
N (%) N (%) N (%)
ΩClinical criteria     
 Cyanosis 442 (14.3) 69 (53.1) 370 (53.2) 0.973
 Breathing rate more than 40 or less than 6 per minute 521 (16.8) 77 (59.2) 440 (63.3) 0.378
 Oliguria poorly or unresponsive to fluids or diuretics 450 (14.8) 62 (47.7) 386 (55.7) 0.093
 Loss of consciousness for up to 12 h 268 (8.7) 51 (39.2) 213 (30.6) 0.050
 Unconscious (coma) with without recordable pulse 164 (5.3) 43 (33.1) 121 (17.4) <0.001
 Gasping due to low PaO2 or pulmonary edema 140 (4.5) 23 (17.7) 117 (17.8) 0.811
aShock as indicated by very low blood pressure or circulatory collapse 606 (19.6) 72 (55.4) 533 (76.4) <0.001
aCoagulation disorders evidenced by low platelets, elevated bleeding or clotting time, or bleeding tendency 362 (11.7) 50 (38.5) 310 (44.6) 0.195
 Cerebrovascular accident 17 (0.6) 5 (3.8) 12 (1.7) 0.118
 Paralysis 13 (0.4) 1 (0.8) 12 (1.6) 0.477
ΩLaboratory-based criteria     
aBilirubin more than 100 mol/l or more than 6.0 mg/dL 274 (8.8) 44 (33.8) 226 (32.7) 0.792
aThrombocytopenia (less than 100,000) 436 (14.1) 60 (46.2) 373 (53.7) 0.115
 Creatinine more than 300 mol/l or more than 3.5 mg/dL 295 (9.5) 47 (36.2) 245 (35.3) 0.844
 Elevated lactate 272 (8.8) 40 (30.8) 229 (33.0) 0.626
 Low pH less than 7.1 255 (8.3) 31 (24.0) 221 (31.8) 0.071
ΩManagement-based criteria     
 Oxygen saturation less than 90 % for more than 60 min 499 (16.1) 71 (54.6) 426 (61.3) 0.153
 Use of vasoactive drug such as ephedrine 204 (6.6) 36 (27.7) 168 (24.2) 0.393
 Dialysis for acute kidney failure 62 (2.0) 13 (10.0) 49 (7.2) 0.242
 Peripartum hysterectomy cardiopulmonary 169 (5.5) 12 (9.2) 81 (11.7) 0.423
 resuscitation 110 (3.6) 96 (73.8) 619 (88.9) <0.001
aTransfusion more than 4 units of red blood cell concentrate 270 (8.7) 40 (30.8) 225 (32.4) 0.719
aIntubation unrelated to anesthesia 124 (4.1) 32 (24.6) 79 (11.4) <0.001
 Admission to the HDU or ICU 541 (17.5) 71 (54.6) 464 (66.8) 0.008
aHospitalization longer than 7 days 537 (17.5) 34 (26.1) 496 (71.4) <0.001
aReturn to operation theatre 67 (2.2) 14 (10.8) 52 (7.4) 0.205
 Referral to a more specialized unit 5 (1.5) 16 (14.0) 27 (3.9) <0.001
 Major operative non-obstetric surgery 9 (0.3) 2 (1.5) 7 (1.0) 0.592
  1. Ω More than one criterion was manifest in some patients; HDU is the high dependency unit, ICU is Intensive care Unit; a Some patients were among those with NLTC