Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis

From: The association between fine particulate matter exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth: a meta-analysis

Authors Study setting Study period Study design Exposure assessment level Data source No. of participants No. of cases Exposure period Exposure range (mean (IQR) μg/m3) Quality scorea
Wilhelm et al. [39] California, USA 1999–2000 Retrospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 106,483 92,68 TS 21.0 (NA) 8
Huynh et al. [7] California, USA 1999–2000 Retrospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 42,692 10,673 WP and TS 18.0 (8.7) 8
Jalaludin et al. [33] Sydney, Australia 1998–2000 Retrospective Regional level and semi-individual level Monitoring network data 123,840 6011 TS 9.0 (4.5) 8
Ritz et al. [37] California, USA 2003 Prospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 58,316 5924 TS 20.0 (NA) 7
Brauer et al. [8] Vancouver, Canada 1999–2002 Prospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 70,249 3748 WP 5.1 (1.1) 7
Wu et al. [16] California, USA 1997–2006 Retrospective Individual level Monitoring network data 81,186 6712 WP 1.8 (1.4) 9
Gehring et al. [17] North, west, and center of the Netherlands 1996–1997 Prospective Individual level Monitoring network data and land use regression model 3853 165 WP and TS 20.1 (4.6) 7
Rudra et al. [38] Washington, USA 1996–2006 Retrospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 3509 369 TS 10.1 (NA) 9
Kloog et al. [34] Massachusetts, USA 2000–2008 Retrospective Semi-individual level Remote sensing data 634,244 61,972 WP 9.6 (5.3) 9
Lee et al. [35] Pittsburgh, USA 1997–2002 Prospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 34,705 1940 TS 15.6 (4.0) 7
Chang et al. 2015 Atlanta, USA 1999–2005 Retrospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 175,891 18,648 WP and TS 17.3 (3.1) 8
Fleischer et al. [10] 22 countries 2004–2008 Retrospective Regional level Remote sensing data 192,900 13,379 WP 1.4–98.1 (NA) 7
Nannam et al. 2014 [41] Northwest England 2004–2008 Retrospective Semi-individual level and individual level Monitoring network data 265,613 38,608 WP and TS 22.1 (4.6) 9
Ha et al. [42] Florida, USA 2004–2005 Retrospective Regional level and semi-individual level Monitoring network data 423,719 39,082 WP and TS 9.9 (2.0) 8
Hyder et al. [18] Connecticut and Massachusetts, USA 2000–2006 Retrospective Regional level and semi-individual level Monitoring network data and remote sensing data 647,942 41,868 WP and TS 11.9 (2.4) 8
Gray et al. [32] North Carolina, USA 2002–2006 Retrospective Regional level Monitoring network data 457,642 40,746 WP 13.6 (2.0) 8
Pereira et al. [9] Connecticut, USA 2000–2006 Prospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 61,688 - WP and TS 12.4 (2.3) 9
Pereira et al. [56] Perth, Australia 1997-2007 Prospective Semi-individual level Monitoring network data 31,567 - WP and TS 8.6 (2.2) 9
  1. NA: Data not available
  2. a: Newcastle-Ottawa quality score
  3. -: The number of cases was not available because these studies were longitudinal studies that assessed the effects of PM2.5 on preterm birth across successive pregnancies. NA: Data not available
\